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Nanotechnology Prospects and Constraints in Agriculture

  • Kella Poorna Chandrika
  • Anupama Singh
  • Madhu Kiran Tumma
  • Praduman Yadav
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 14)

Abstract

Particles at nanoscale has lead revolutionary developments in all major sectors like medicine, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery, electronics and including agriculture and food due to expression of different properties like optical, mechanical, magnetic and other physical properties than their bulk counterparts. The technology deals with study of nanoscale particles and their behavior is called nanotechnology. With increase in demand for feeding the growing population has leading to adopt newer, stable and ecofriendly technologies for sustainable agriculture. Among the advanced technologies, nanotechnology has finding the applications in agricultural and allied sectors. Application of nanotechnology in agriculture has great potential and enhances the quality of life. Increasing applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and allied areas is due to enhanced quality of produce, food quality and safety. Issues leads to utilize nanotechnology in agriculture are climate change, urbanization, sustainable use of natural resources and environmental issues like runoff and accumulation of pesticides and fertilizers. Nanotechnological applications agriculture ranges from nanopesticides, nanofertilizers, controlled delivery devices, water management, soil management, aquaculture, poultry, veterinary, detecting of pathogens, precise agriculture etc. Nanotechnology plays a pivotal role in agriculture from field to plate stage. Different types of nanoparticles which varies in size, shape and chemical nature are utilized at different stages and phases of agriculture, water management, soil management and post-harvest. Like every technology, nanotechnological approaches has its own pros and cons. Emphasis is going on to make nanotechnology safer to humans and environment by increasing its potential and utilizing greener nanomaterials and nanotechnology. This chapter provides a detailed overview potential of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture as different types of nanopesticides, nanoformulations, nanofertilizers, nanosensors, entry and uptake of nanomaterials of utilized nanoparticles in plants, involvement in plant functioning, risks associated with nanotechnology and greener options to overcome the risks. Uptake, translocation and mechanism of action of nanomaterials has been discussed along with its potential. Conventional nanomaterials has finding its potential in almost every phase of agriculture but due to smaller in size its entry into plant, environment and humans is very easy which have risks associated with it and synthesis of nanoparticles involves generation of huge hazardous waste. In order to reduce these risks and toxicological effects in nanotechnology, adoption of greener methods for synthesis of existing nanoparticles, green nanomaterials usage is research trend in present. In this context, present article has given reference of need of green nanotechnology and some of the key points involved in it which aims for nutritional security in agriculture along with safer and sustainable environment.

Keywords

Nanopesticides Nanoformulations Phytotoxicity Translocation Precision Nanoparticle Nanocellulose 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kella Poorna Chandrika
    • 1
  • Anupama Singh
    • 2
  • Madhu Kiran Tumma
    • 3
  • Praduman Yadav
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, RajendranagarHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Division of Agricultural ChemicalsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.PBRD Asia Pacific Millet India, Pioneer Hi-bred Pvt Ltd.HyderabadIndia

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