Advertisement

Adaptive Capacity to Coastal Disasters: Challenges and Lessons from Small-Scale Fishing Communities in Central-Southern Chile

  • Andrés MarínEmail author
Chapter
  • 408 Downloads
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 19)

Abstract

More frequent and severe coastal disasters represent major threats to small-scale fisheries and challenge their viability and potential as an engine of sustainable development. Hurricanes and storm surges and alluviums and tsunamis, among other fast and unexpected events, often drive multiple and overlapping social and environmental impacts. They also influence changes to which fishing communities must respond and adapt, such as threats to life, material devastation, natural resource loss, and ecosystem transformations. Based on empirical case studies and secondary sources, this chapter examines the successes and failures of small-scale fishing communities in the central-southern Chile since the massive February 2010 earthquake and tsunami. This study draws lessons about the key factors of adaptive capacity among coastal resource user communities. The analysis reinforces the importance of social capital and networks, local ecological knowledge, and livelihood agility, as well as stresses several opportunities and drawbacks that need to be observed on the way to pursue more sustainable small-scale fisheries. A better understanding of what makes a difference for fishing communities in response to natural hazards and other external perturbations can inform the design of more equitable and effective fisheries and coastal management policies, along with strategies in Chile and elsewhere.

Keywords

Artisanal Benthic Chile Coastal Areas Co-management Ecosystem services Hazards Livelihoods Post-disaster Recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work would have not been possible without the contribution of more than 300 informants, including fishery workers, coastal dwellers, public sector officers, researchers, and professionals, who kindly and selflessly agreed to share their perceptions, experiences, and information. ¡Muchas gracias a todos y todas! I wish to express my gratitude to my supervisors and coauthors Beatrice Crona, Örjan Bodin, and Stefan Gelcich, for their support, guidance, and insightful discussions throughout the process. I am especially thankful to Dr. Juan C. Castilla for encouragement and inspiration to do research and pursue my doctoral project and to my other coauthors, Gonzalo Araya, Gonzalo Olea, and Gonzalo Espíndola, for the opportunity to work together. The original studies were partly funded by Project CAPES FB-0002. I also thank the support of FONDECYT 11171068 and 1140672 and MUSELS/ICM MINECON.

References

  1. Aburto J, Thiel M, Stotz W (2009) Allocation of effort in artisanal fisheries: the importance of migration and temporary fishing camps. Ocean Coast Manag 52(12):646–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson J, Gardner R (2014) Fishing failure and success in the Gulf of Maine: lobster and groundfish management. Maritime Stud 13(1):8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):268–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adger WN, Kelly PM, Winkels A, Huy LQ, Locke C (2002) Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience. AMBIO J Hum Environ 31(4):358–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adger WN, Hughes TP, Folke C, Carpenter SR, Rockström J (2005) Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309(5737):1036–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aldrich DP (2012) Building resilience: social capital in post-disaster recovery. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Allison EH, Ellis F (2001) The livelihoods approach and management of small-scale fisheries. Mar Policy 25(5):377–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alveal K (1988) Gracilaria de Tubul: Historia y significado de un recurso. Gayana (Botánica) 45:119–140Google Scholar
  9. Andrew NL, Béné C, Hall SJ, Allison EH, Heck S, Ratner BD (2007) Diagnosis and management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. Fish Fish 8(3):227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aránguiz R, González G, González J, Catalán PA, Cienfuegos R, Yagi Y, Ryo Okuwaki R, Urra L, Contreras K, Del Rio I, Rojas C (2016) The 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami from the post-tsunami survey and numerical modeling perspectives. Pure Appl Geophys 173(2):333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Armitage D (2005) Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management. Environ Manage 35(6):703–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Badjeck MC, Allison EH, Halls AS, Dulvy NK (2010) Impacts of climate variability and change on fishery-based livelihoods. Mar Policy 34(3):375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkes F (2007) Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: lessons from resilience thinking. Nat Hazards 41(2):283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berkes F, Mahon R, McConney P, Pollnac R, Pomeroy R (2001) Managing small-scale fisheries: alternative directions and methods. International Development Research Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  15. Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I, Wisner B (2014) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Bodin Ö, Crona BI (2008) Management of natural resources at the community level: exploring the role of social capital and leadership in a rural fishing community. World Dev 36(12):2763–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bodin Ö, Prell C (2011) Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bodin Ö, Crona B, Ernstson H (2006) Social networks in natural resource management: what is there to learn from a structural perspective. Ecol Soc 11(2):r2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boonstra WJ, Hanh TTH (2014) Adaptation to climate change as social–ecological trap: a case study of fishing and aquaculture in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. Environ Dev Sustain 17(6):1527–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boonstra WJ, Ottosen KM, Ferreira ASA, Richter A, Rogers LA, Pedersen MW, Kokkalis A, Bardarson H, Bonanomi S, Butler W, Diekert FK, Fouzai N, Holma M, Holt RE, Kvile KØ, Malanski E, Macdonald JI, Nieminen E, Romagnoni G, Snickars M, Weigel B, Woods P, Yletyinen J, Whittington JD (2015) What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up. Mar Policy 60:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burt RS (2002) The social capital of structural holes. The new economic sociology: developments in an emerging field. In: Guillén MF, Collins R, England P, Meyer M (eds) The new economic sociology. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp 148–190Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter S, Arrow K, Barrett S, Biggs R, Brock W, Crépin AS, Engström G, Folke C, Hugues TP, Kautsky N, Li CZ, McCarney G, Meng K, Mäler KG, Polasky S, Scheffer M, Shogren J, Sterner T, Vincent JR, Walker B, Xepapadeas A, de Zeeuw A (2012) General resilience to cope with extreme events. Sustainability 4(12):3248–3259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Castilla JC (1994) The Chilean small-scale benthic shellfisheries and the institutionalization of new management practices. Ecol Int Bull 21:47–63Google Scholar
  24. Castilla JC, Manriquez P, Alvarado J, Rosson A, Pino C, Espoz C, Soto R, Oliva D, Defeo O (1998) Artisanal “caletas” as units of production and co-managers of benthic invertebrates in Chile. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 125:407–413Google Scholar
  25. Castilla JC, Manríquez PH, Camaño A (2010) Effects of rocky shore coseismic uplift and the 2010 Chilean megaearthquake on intertidal biomarker species. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 418:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Charles AT (2001) Sustainable fishery systems. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Cochard R, Ranamukhaarachchi SL, Shivakoti GP, Shipin OV, Edwards PJ, Seeland KT (2008) The 2004 tsunami in Aceh and Southern Thailand: a review on coastal ecosystems, wave hazards and vulnerability. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 10(1):3–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coleman JS (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital. Am J Sociol 94(1988):S95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Contreras M, Winckler P (2013) Pérdidas de vidas, viviendas, infraestructura y embarcaciones por el tsunami del 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la costa central de Chile. Obras y Proyectos 14:6–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Contreras-López M, Winckler P, Sepúlveda I, Andaur-Álvarez A, Cortés-Molina F, Guerrero CJ, Mizobe CE, Igualt F, Breuer W, Beyá JF, Vergara H, Vergara H (2016) Field survey of the 2015 Chile tsunami with emphasis on coastal wetland and conservation areas. Pure Appl Geophys 173(2):349–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crona B, Gelcich S, Bodin Ö (2017) The importance of interplay between leadership and social capital in shaping outcomes of rights-based fisheries governance. World Dev 91:70–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc Sci Q 84(2):242–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dahlman CJ (1979) The problem of externality. J Law Econ 22(1):141–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Daw T, Brown K, Rosendo S, Pomeroy R (2011) Applying the ecosystem services concept to poverty alleviation: The need to disaggregate human well-being. Environ Conserv 38(04):370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Silva DAM, Yamao M (2007) Effects of the tsunami on fisheries and coastal livelihood: a case study of tsunami-ravaged southern Sri Lanka. Disasters 31(4):386–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diamond J (2005) Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Dolšak N, Ostrom E (eds) (2003) The commons in the new millennium: Challenges and adaptation. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Eriksson H, Albert J, Albert S, Warren R, Pakoa K, Andrew N (2017) The role of fish and fisheries in recovering from natural hazards: Lessons learned from Vanuatu, Environ Sci Policy 76: 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. FAO (2015) Voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty alleviation. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  40. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2014) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture: opportunities and challenges. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  41. Farías M, Vargas G, Tassara A, Carretier S, Baize S, Melnick D, Bataille K (2010) Land level changes produced by the Mw 8.8 2010 Chilean earthquake. Science 329(5994):916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gelcich S, Edwards-Jones G, Kaiser MJ (2005) Importance of attitudinal differences among artisanal fishers toward co-management and conservation of marine resources. Conserv Biol 19(3):865–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gelcich S, Hughes TP, Olsson P, Folke C, Defeo O, Fernandez M, Foale S, Gunderson LH, Rodríguez-Sickert C, Scheffer M, Steneck RS, Castilla JC (2010) Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(39):16794–16799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Godoy N, Gelcich S, Vásquez JA, Castilla JC (2010) Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile. Ecol Appl 20(6):1504–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grafton RQ (2005) Social capital and fisheries governance. Ocean Coast Manag 48(9):753–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gunderson L (2010) Ecological and human community resilience in response to natural disasters. Ecol Soc 15(2):18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jaramillo E, Dugan JE, Hubbard DM, Melnick D, Manzano M, Duarte C, Campos C, Sanchez R (2012) Ecological implications of extreme events: Footprints of the 2010 earthquake along the Chilean coast. PLoS One 7(5):e35348.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson DS (2006) Category, narrative, and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries. Mar Policy 30(6):747–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kraan M (2009). Creating space for fishermen’s livelihoods: Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen’s negotiations for livelihood space within multiple governance structures in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). Leiden UniversityGoogle Scholar
  50. Krishna A (2002) Active social capital: tracing the roots of development and democracy. Columbia University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leitch AM, Bohensky EL (2014) Return to “a new normal”: discourses of resilience to natural disasters in Australian newspapers 2006–2010. Glob Environ Chang 26:14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Madariaga R, Métois M, Vigny C, Campos J (2010) Central Chile finally breaks. Science 328(5975):181–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Manyena SB (2006) The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters 30(4):434–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marín A (2015) Adaptive capacity for social and environmental change: the role of networks in Chile’s small-scale fisheries. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  55. Marín A, Berkes F (2010) Network approach for understanding small-scale fisheries governance: the case of the Chilean coastal co-management system. Mar Policy 34:851–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marín A, Gelcich S, Araya G, Olea G, Espíndola M, Castilla JC (2010) The 2010 tsunami in Chile: devastation and survival of coastal small-scale fishing communities. Mar Policy 34:1381–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marín A, Gelcich S, Castilla JC, Berkes F (2012) Exploring social capital in Chile’s coastal benthic comanagement system using a network approach. Ecol Soc 17(1):13.  https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04562-170113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marín A, Gelcich S, Castilla JC (2014) Ecosystem services and abrupt transformations in a coastal wetland social-ecological system: Tubul-Raqui after the 2010 earthquake in Chile. Ecol Soc 19(1):22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marín A, Bodin Ö, Gelcich S, Crona B (2015) Social capital in post-disaster recovery trajectories: insights from a longitudinal study of tsunami-impacted small-scale fisher organizations in Chile. Glob Environ Chang 35:450–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marschke MJ, Berkes F (2006) Exploring strategies that build livelihood resilience: a case from Cambodia. Ecol Soc 11(1):42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marshall NA, Marshall PA (2007) Conceptualizing and operationalizing social resilience within commercial fisheries in northern Australia. Ecol Soc 12(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maru YT, Stafford Smith M, Sparrow A, Pinho PF, Dube OP (2014) A linked vulnerability and resilience framework for adaptation pathways in remote disadvantaged communities. Glob Environ Chang 28:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Masten AS, Obradović J (2008) Disaster preparation and recovery: lessons from research on resilience in human development. Ecol Soc 13(1):9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCarthy JF (2014) Using community led development approaches to address vulnerability after disaster: caught in a sad romance. Glob Environ Chang 27:144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McClanahan TR, Cinner JE, Maina J, Graham NAJ, Daw TM, Stead SM, Wamukota A, Brown K, Ateweberhan M, Venus V, Polunin NVC (2008) Conservation action in a changing climate. Conserv Lett 1(2):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McGoodwin JR (1990) Crisis in the world’s fisheries: people, problems, and policies. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  67. McLaughlin P, Dietz T (2008) Structure, agency and environment: Toward an integrated perspective on vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 18(1):99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Millennium Assessment (2005) Millennium ecosystem assessment. Synthesis report. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Moussard M (2011) Prácticas y conocimientos territoriales, determinantes de la sobrevivencia ante situaciones de riesgo en la Caleta El Morro de Talcahuano (unpublished thesis). Universidad de Concepción, ChileGoogle Scholar
  70. NCEI (2016) Natural hazards viewer. http://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards/. Accessed 5 April 2016Google Scholar
  71. Oficina de Estudios y Políticas Agrarias (ODEPA) (2014) Sector pesquero: Evolución de sus desembarques, uso y exportación en las últimas décadas. Oficina de Estudios y Políticas Agrarias, Ministerio de Agricultura, Chile. http://www.odepa.cl/wpcontent/files_mf/1392915533Sectorpesca201402.pdf. Accessed 15 April 2016Google Scholar
  72. Olsson P, Galaz V (2012) Social-ecological innovation and transformation. In: Nicholls A, Murdock A (eds) Social innovation: blurring boundaries to reconfigure markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp 223–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Payne H, Castilla JC (1994) Socio-biological assessment of common property resources management: small-scale fishing unions in central Chile. Out of the Shell 4(3):10–14Google Scholar
  74. Pelling M, High C (2005) Understanding adaptation: what can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Glob Environ Chang 15(4):308–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pomeroy RS, Ratner BD, Hall SJ, Pimoljinda J, Vivekanandan V (2006) Coping with disaster: rehabilitating coastal livelihoods and communities. Mar Policy 30(6):786–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ragin CC (2008) Redesigning social inquiry: fuzzy sets and beyond. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rice JC, Garcia SM (2011) Fisheries, food security, climate change, and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1343–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ruegg JC, Rudloff A, Vigny C, Madariaga R, De Chabalier JB, Campos J, Kausel E, Barrientos S, Dimitrov D (2009) Interseismic strain accumulation measured by GPS in the seismic gap between Constitución and Concepción in Chile. Phys Earth Planet Inter 175(1):78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salas S, Chuenpagdee R, Charles AT, Seijo JC (2011) Coastal fisheries of Latin America and the Caribbean, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture technical paper 544. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  80. Salinas-Martinez L (2012) Informe pesca artesanal comuna de Arauco periodo 2009-2012. Municipalidad de Arauco. Oficina Pesca Artesanal y AcuiculturaGoogle Scholar
  81. Schumann S (2007) Co-management and “consciousness”: Fishers’ assimilation of management principles in Chile. Mar Policy 31(2):101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. SERNAPESCA (Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura) (2015) Desembarque artesanal por especie y región, anuarios estadísticos 2009-2015. https://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=246&func=selec&id=2. Accessed 5 April 2016Google Scholar
  83. Smith ME (1998) Fisheries risk in modern context. Maritime Anthropol Stud 1:29–48Google Scholar
  84. Soulé B (2014) Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile. Disasters 38(2):375–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Szczucinski W, Chaimanee N, Niedzielski P, Rachlewicz G, Saisuttichai D, Tepsuwan T (2006) Environmental and geological impacts of the 26 December 2004 tsunami in coastal zone of Thailand-overview of short and long-term effects. Pol J Environ Stud 15(5):793–810Google Scholar
  86. Tompkins EL, Adger W (2004) Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecol Soc 9(2):10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Turner BL (2010) Vulnerability and resilience: coalescing or paralleling approaches for sustainability science? Glob Environ Chang 20(4):570–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) (2016) Largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. U.S. Geological Survey – National Earthquake Information Center. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/10_largest_world.php. Accessed 8 May 2016Google Scholar
  89. Valdovinos C, Muñoz MD, Sandoval N, Vásquez D, Olmos V (2010) Natural disasters and biodiversity: The case of Tubul-Raqui coastal wetland. Sociedad Hoy 19:33–51Google Scholar
  90. Vargas G, Farías M, Carretier S, Tassara A, Baize S, Melnick D (2011) Coastal uplift and tsunami effects associated to the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule earthquake in Central Chile. Andean Geol 38(1):219–238Google Scholar
  91. Walker B, Holling CS, Carpenter SR, Kinzig A (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 9(2):9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Welle T, Birkmann J (2015) World Risk Index 2015. In Word risk report. Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft and UNU-EHS, Berlin, pp. 40–49xGoogle Scholar
  93. Westlund L, Poulain F, Bage H, van Anrooy R (2007) Disaster response and risk management in the fisheries sector. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilhelm J, Delaney A (2013) No homes, no boats, no rafts: Miyagi coastal people in the aftermath of disaster. In: Gill T, Slater DH, Steger B (eds) Japan copes with calamity. Peter Lang, Bern, pp 99–124Google Scholar
  95. Woolcock M (2001) The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes. Can J Policy Res 2(1):11–17Google Scholar
  96. Yin RK (2013) Case study research: design and methods. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  97. Zanuttigh B (2014) Features common to different hydrometeorological events and knowledge integration. In: Hydrometeorological hazards: interfacing science and policy, Wiley, pp 49–81Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEDER – Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo Regional y Políticas Públicas, Núcleo de Investigación Desarrollo Local, Regional y Gobernanza Medioambiental, Universidad de Los LagosOsornoChile

Personalised recommendations