Advertisement

Exploring the Governability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Ecuador and Galapagos Islands Under the Buen Vivir Principle

  • María José Barragán-PaladinesEmail author
Chapter
  • 406 Downloads
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 19)

Abstract

Fisheries in Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands are a very complex, diverse, and dynamic sector. Unfortunately more often than not, policies and practices applied to govern fisheries have proven to be inappropriate. Small-scale fisheries in mainland Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands face multiple challenges mostly linked to the limited governability of the fisheries systems. By using empirical evidence based on triangulation of qualitative open-ended surveys and intensive literature review, this chapter explores the fisheries sector in Ecuador through the lenses of the Buen Vivir standpoint, which is the guiding principle of Ecuador’s National Development Plan. Under the interactive governance approach, which is used as the primary analytical framework, this chapter examines the challenges encountered in governing small-scale fisheries in both the Ecuadorian mainland and Galapagos Islands. This chapter highlights the coincidences and mismatches between the two normative instruments simultaneously operating in these two regions. Main findings confirm the existence of incongruities between the Buen Vivir-inspired national development path and the policies and practices taken to address small-scale fisheries issues. Yet, common grounds between both instruments exist, and they may serve to pave the road for a comprehensive governance model for the national fisheries systems. We suggest that by implementing a comprehensive overarching national policy framework for fisheries, the Buen Vivir principle – ruling the national development plan – would be better illustrated. By doing such, the overall governability of fisheries in Ecuador would improve, and thus the sustainability of small-scale fisheries and the viability of fishing communities in both regions would be fostered.

Keywords

Small-scale fisheries Governability Ecuador Galapagos Islands Buen Vivir 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to the TBTI project and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada for the funding provided to conduct this research. Thanks to the three reviewers whose useful comments and feedback provided to early versions of this chapter greatly enhanced the quality of this publication. Thanks to one of them for the relevant additional literature generously provided. Thanks to the editorial team for their help in improving the writing style of the chapter.

References

  1. Acosta A (2010) El Buen Vivir en el camino del post-desarrollo. Una lectura desde la Constitución de Montecristi, Fundación Friedrich Eber. Quito: FES-ILDISGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta A (2012) The Buen Vivir: an opportunity to imagine another world. In: Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed) Inside a champion: an analysis of the Brazilian development model. Publication Series on Democracy. Grupo Smart Printer, Berlin, pp 192–201Google Scholar
  3. Albó X (2009) Suma Qamaña: El buen convivir. Revista Obets 4:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison EH, Ratner BD, Åsgård B, Willmann R, Pomeroy R, Kurien J (2012) Rights-based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Fish Fish 13(1):14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allsopp WHL (1985) Fishery development experiences. Fishing New Books Ltd., FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  6. Altmann P (2013) Das Gute Leben als Alternative zum Wachstum?: Der Fall Ecuador. Sozialwissenschaften und Berufspraxis 36(1):101–111Google Scholar
  7. Armitage D, de Loë R, Plummer R (2012) Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice. Conserv Lett 5:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arriaga L, Martínez J (2008) Plan de Ordenamiento de la Pesca y Acuicultura del Ecuador. Informe de Consultoría. Subsecretaría de Recursos Pesqueros-Ministerio de Comercio Exterior, Industrialización, Pesca, y Competitividad. Convenio de Préstamo BIRF-No. 43-46 EC. Gobierno de Ecuador, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  9. Baine M, Howard M, Kerr S, Edgar G, Toral V (2007) Coastal and marine resource management in the Galapagos Islands and the Archipelago of San Andres: issues, problems and opportunities. Ocean Coast Manag 50:148–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banks S (2002) Ambiente físico. In: Danulat E, Edgar C (eds) Reserva Marina de Galápagos- Línea Base de la Biodiversidad. Parque Nacional Galápagos, Puerto Ayora, pp 22–37Google Scholar
  11. Banks S (2007) Estado de especies y hábitats marinos en Galápagos. In: Danulat E, Edgar C (eds) I Reserva Marina de Galápagos- Línea Base de la Biodiversidad. Parque Nacional Galápagos, Puerto Ayora, pp 122–127Google Scholar
  12. Banks S (2009) Galapagos and climate change. Final technical report from the Charles Darwin Foundation to CI and WWF Galapagos. January 1 – June 30, 2009. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  13. Banks S, Vera M, Toscano M, Ruiz D, Tirado N (2006) Monitoreo ecológico de la zona costera para la evaluación de la zonificación provisional consensuada (ZPC). Fundación Charles Darwin, Santa Cruz, Galápagos, EcuadorGoogle Scholar
  14. Barragán-Paladines MJ (2015) Two laws for the same fish: small-scale fisheries governance in mainland Ecuador and Galapagos Islands. In S. Jentoft & R. Chuenpagdee (eds) Interactive governance for small-scale fisheries: global reflections. MARE Publication Series 13. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 157–178Google Scholar
  15. Barragán-Paladines MJ, Chuenpagdee R (2015) Governability assessment of the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Maritime Stud 14:13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40152-015-0031-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bavinck M, Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S, Kooiman J (eds) (2013) Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: theory and applications. MARE Publication Series 7. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  17. Barragán-Paladines MJ (2017) The Buen Vivir and the small-scale fisheries guidelines in ecuador: A comparison. Chapter 33 In S. Jentoft et al (eds) The small-scale fisheries guidelines, MARE Publication Series 14, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55074-9_33 Google Scholar
  18. Beltrán-Turriago CS (2001) Promoción de la ordenación de la pesca costera. Aspectos socioeconómicos y técnicos de la pesca artesanal en El salvador, Costa Rica, Panamá, Ecuador y Colombia. FAO Circular de Pesca. No. 957/2. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Béné C (2003) When fishery rhymes with poverty: a first step beyond the old paradigm on poverty in small-scale fisheries. World Dev 31(6):949–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Béné C (2009) Are fishers poor or vulnerable? Assessing economic vulnerability in small-scale fishing communities. J Dev Stud 45(6):911–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bennet JB, Govan H, Satterfield T (2015) Ocean grabbing. Mar Policy 57:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Berros MV (2015) The constitution of the republic of Ecuador: Pachamama has rights. Environment & Society Portal, Arcadia, Article 11 http://www.environmentandsociety.org/arcadia/constitution-republic-ecuador-pachamama-has-rights
  23. Broadus JM (1987) The Galapagos marine resources reserve and tourism development. Oceanus 30(3):9–15Google Scholar
  24. Bussey M (2014) Extending the scenario horizon: putting narratives to work: essay. J Futures Stud 18(3):95–100Google Scholar
  25. Bustamante R, Collins KJ, Bensted-Smith R (1999a) Biodiversity conservation in the Galápagos Marine Reserve. Entomol Suppl 68:45–52Google Scholar
  26. Bustamante R, Espinoza E, Nicolaides F, Murillo JC, Chasiluisa C, Ruttemberg B, Andrade R, Torres S, Toral MV, Barreno J, Piú M (1999b) Fishing in Galapagos: a summary of the main indicators for 1998. In: Galapagos Report 1998–1999. Fundación Natura & World Wildlife Fund, Quito, pp 35–49Google Scholar
  27. Castrejón M (2011) Co-manejo pesquero en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos: Tendencias, retos y perspectivas de cambio. Tinker Foundation/ECCD/Kanankil, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  28. Castrejón M, Charles A (2013) Improving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Mar Policy 38:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castrejón M, Defeo O, Reck G, Charles A (2013) Fishery science in Galapagos: from a resource-focused to a social-ecological systems approach. In: Denkinger J, Vinueza L (eds) The Galapagos Marine Reserve: social and ecological interactions in the Galapagos Islands, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 160–185Google Scholar
  30. Celata F, Sanna VS (2010) Ambientalismo y (post-) política en un espacio de reserva: El archipiélago de las Galápagos. Scripta Nuova, 14(331), Article 62Google Scholar
  31. Charles AT, Brainerd TR, Bermudez MA, Montalvo HM, Pomeroy SR (1994) Fisheries socio-economics in the developing world: regional assessments and an annotated bibliography. Ottawa, International Development Research Centre (IDRC)Google Scholar
  32. Chevalier JM, Buckles D (2000) El manejo de los conflictos: Una perspectiva heterocultural. In: Buckles D (ed) Cultivar la paz: Conflicto y colaboración en el manejo de los recursos naturales. IDRC, Ottawa, pp 15–46Google Scholar
  33. Chuenpagdee R (2011) Interactive governance for marine conservation: an illustration. Bull Mar Sci 87(2):197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S (2009) Governability assessment for fisheries and coastal systems: a reality check. Hum Ecol 37:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S (2013) Assessing governability – what’s next. In Bavinck M, Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S, Kooiman J (eds) Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: theory and applications. MARE Publication Series 7. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 335–349Google Scholar
  36. Coello S (1993) Diagnóstico de la actividad pesquera en la zona de influencia del Parque Nacional Machalilla: Estudios en áreas protegidas, vol 5. Fundación Natura, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  37. Comisión Técnica Pesquera – Junta de Manejo Participativo (CTP-JMP) (2009) Capítulo pesca del Plan de Manejo de la Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Unpublished document. CTP-JMP, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  38. Danulat E, Edgar G (eds) (2002) Reserva Marina de Galápagos: Línea base de la biodiversidad. Fundación Charles Darwin & Servicio Parque Nacional Galápagos, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  39. Davos CA, Siakavara K, Santorineou A, Side J, Taylor M, Barriga P (2007) Zoning of marine protected areas: conflicts and cooperation options in the Galapagos and San Andres archipelagos. Ocean Coast Manag 50:223–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. De Madariaga JJ (1969) La caza y la pesca al descubrirse América. Editorial Prensa Española, MadridGoogle Scholar
  41. Denkinger J, Parra M, Muñoz JP, Carrasco C, Murillo JC, Espinosa E, Rubianes F, Koch V (2013) Are boat strikes a threat to sea turtles in the Galapagos Marine Reserve? Ocean Coast Manag 80:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Diegues AC (2005) El mito moderno de la naturaleza intocada (Edición revisada). Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre Populações Humanas e Áreas Úmidas Brasileiras (NUPAUB) & Center for Research on Human Population and Wetlands in Brazil (USP)Google Scholar
  43. DPNG (Dirección Parque Nacional Galápagos) (2014) Plan de Manejo de las Áreas Protegidas de Galápagos para el Buen Vivir. Gobierno de Ecuador, Puerto Ayora/GalápagosGoogle Scholar
  44. Duggan GL, Green LJF, Jarre A (2014) ‘Thinking like a fish’: adaptive strategies for coping with vulnerability and variability emerging from a relational engagement with kob. Maritime Stud 13:4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2212-9790-13-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ECOLAP & MAE (Instituto de Ecología Aplicada & Ministerio del Ambiente de Ecuador) (2007) Guía del Patrimonio de Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Ecuador. ECOFUND, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, Darwin Net, & Instituto Geográfico Militar, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  46. Ecuadorian National Constitution (2008) supra note 5, at art. 71Google Scholar
  47. Edgar GJ, Banks S, Fariña JM, Calvopiña M, Martínez C (2004a) Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos Archipelago. J Biogeogr 31:1107–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Edgar GJ, Bustamante RH, Fariña JM, Calvopiña M, Toral-Granda MV (2004b) Bias in evaluating the effects of marine protected areas: the importance of baseline data for the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Environ Conserv 31(3):212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Edgar GJ, Banks S, Bensted-Smith R, Calvopiña M, Chiriboga A, Garske LE, Henderson S, Miller KA, Salazar S (2008) Conservation of threatened species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve through identification and protection of marine key biodiversity areas. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 18:955–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Epler B (2007) Tourism, the economy, population growth, and conservation in Galapagos. Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  51. Escobar A (2010) Latin America at a crossroads: alternative modernizations, post-liberalism, or post-development? Cult Stud 24(1):1–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Escobar A (2012) Encountering development: The making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  53. Escobar A (2015a) Thinking-feeling with the earth: territorial struggles and the ontological dimension of the epistemologies of the south. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana 11(1):11–32Google Scholar
  54. Escobar A (2015b) Degrowth, postdevelopment, and transitions: a preliminary conversation [special feature – review article. Socially sustainable degrowth as a social-ecological transformation]. Sustain Sci 10:451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-015-0297-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2015a) Regional overview of food insecurity – Latin America and the Caribbean: the region has reached the international hunger targets. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  56. FAO (2015b) Voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  57. Gaibor N, Rosero J, Altamirano M (2001) El impacto de la migración humana en las artes de pesca artesanales y semi-industriales utilizadas en los Parques Nacionales Galápagos y Machalilla. Informe Técnico de consultoría para the Nature Conservancy y Fundación Natura. La Union, GuayaquilGoogle Scholar
  58. González JA, Montes C, Rodríguez J, Tapia W (2008) Rethinking the Galápagos Islands as a complex socio-ecological system: implications for conservation and management. Ecol Soc 13(2):13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grenier C (2007) Conservación contra natura: las Islas Galápagos. Abya Yala, QuitoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grupo Núcleo (1999, 20 Abril) Plan de Manejo de Conservación y Uso Sustentable para la Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Registro Oficial no. 173. Quito. Unpublished documentGoogle Scholar
  61. Gudynas E, Acosta A (2011) La renovación de la crítica al desarrollo y el buen vivir como alternativa: Utopía y praxis latinoamericana. Revista Internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social 16(53):71–83Google Scholar
  62. Hannah L, Ikegami M, Hole DG, Seo C, Butchart SHM, Townsend Peterson A, Roehrdanz PR (2013) Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security. PLoS One 8(8):e72590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Harris DC (2008) The Boldt decision in Canada: aboriginal treaty rights to fish on the Pacific. In: Harmon A (ed) The power of promises: rethinking Indian treaties in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 128–153Google Scholar
  64. Harris (2014, 29 August) Integrating voluntary family planning services with coastal resource management in Madagascar: Interview with Alasdair Harris. Marine Ecosystems and Management (MEAM) – News and analysis on ocean planning and ecosystem-based management, 7(6). www.MEAM.net. Accessed 29 Aug 2014
  65. Hennessy E, McCleary AL (2011) Nature’s Eden? The production and effects of ‘pristine’ nature in the Galápagos Islands. Island Stud J 6(2):131–156Google Scholar
  66. Heylings P, Bravo M (2007) Evaluating governance: a process for understanding how co-management is functioning, and why, in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Ocean Coast Manag 50:174–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hockings M, Valenzuela S, Calvopiña M, Chamorro S, León P, Bucaram S, Villalta M (2012) Galapagos Marine Reserve management effectiveness assessment. Galapagos National Park Service & World Wildlife Fund, GalapagosGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoyman MM, McCall JR (2013) Is there trouble in paradise? The perspectives of Galapagos community leaders on managing economic development and environmental conservation through ecotourism policies and the special law of 1998. J Ecotourism 12(1):33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. INEC (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos) (2010) Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda. http://www.ecuadorencifras.gob.ec/censo-de-poblacion-y-vivienda/. Accessed 10 Dec 2013
  70. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (2009) Fisheries and coastal governance as a wicked problem. Mar Policy 33:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (eds) (2015) Interactive governance for small-scale fisheries: global reflections. MARE Publication Series 13. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  72. Jobstvogt N (2010) Fish stock assessment of top-predator wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri, in the Galapagos Islands (Bachelor thesis). Department of Biology, Chemistry & Pharmacy. Freie Universität BerlinGoogle Scholar
  73. Jones PJS (2013) A governance analysis of the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Mar Policy 41:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kahmann B, Stumpf KH, Baumgärtner S (2015) Notions of justice held by stakeholders of the Newfoundland fishery. Mar Policy 62(2015):37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kerr S (2005) What is small island sustainable development about? Ocean Coast Manag 48:503–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kerr GN, Swaffield SR (2012) Identifying cultural service values of a small river in the agricultural landscape of Canterbury, New Zealand, using combined methods. Soc Nat Resour 25(12):1330–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kooiman J (2008) Exploring the concept of governability. J Comp Policy Anal 10(2):171–190Google Scholar
  78. Kooiman J, Bavinck M (2013) Theorizing governability: the interactive governance perspective. In: Bavinck M, Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S, Kooiman J (eds) Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: Theory and applications. MARE Publication Series 7. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 9–30Google Scholar
  79. Kooiman J, Bavinck M, Jentoft S, Pullin R (2005) Fish for life: interactive governance for fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kuzel AJ (1992) Sampling in qualitative inquiry. In: Crabtree BF, Miller WL (eds) Doing qualitative research. Sage, London, pp 31–44Google Scholar
  81. Le Sann A, Commitato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo dei Popoli (CISP) (1997) Del norte al sur: Pescar para vivir. Impreandes Presencia S.A, BogotaGoogle Scholar
  82. Lind A (2012) Contradictions that endure: family norms, social reproduction, and Rafael Correa's citizen revolution in Ecuador. Pol Gend 8(2):254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. LOREG (Ley Orgánica de Régimen Especial de la Provincia de Galápagos) (2016) Ley 0, Registro Oficial Suplemento 520 de 11 Junio 2015Google Scholar
  84. Ludwig D (2001) The era of management is over. Ecosystems 4:758–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MacDonald T (1997) Conflict in the Galapagos Islands: analysis and recommendations for management. In: Report for the Charles Darwin foundation (working paper). Harvard University, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  86. MAGAP (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuacultura y Pesca) (2015) Inversiones en la pesca artesanal. Gobierno del Ecuador. www.magap.gob.ec. Accessed 9 Sept 2015
  87. Mays N, Pope C (1995) Rigour in qualitative research. Br Med J 311:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mc Ewan C, Silva MI (1998) Arqueología y comunidad en el Parque Nacional Machalilla. In: Josse C, Iturralde M (eds) Compendio de investigaciones en el Parque Nacional Machalilla. Informe de la Fundación Natura & Centro de Datos para la Conservación (CDC-Ecuador). Nuevo Arte, Quito, pp 20–30Google Scholar
  89. Murillo Posada JC, Alvarez-Arce C, Oviedo-Pincay M, Delgado-Bone A, Montesdeoca, J. (2013). Evaluación de la factibilidad del co-manejo pesquero en el estuario del Río Cojimíes. Informe Final. Centro de Transferencia y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena & Vice Ministerio de Acuacultura y Pesca, Santa ElenaGoogle Scholar
  90. Norton P (1982) Preliminary observations on Loma Alta, an early Valdivia Midden in Guayas Province, Ecuador. In: Marcos JG, Norton P (eds) Primer Simposio de correlaciones antropológicas Andino – Mesoamericano. Escuela Superior Politécnica Del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, pp 101–119Google Scholar
  91. Norton P (1985) Boletín de los Museos del Banco Central No.6. Simposio 45 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas. Universidad de los Andes, BogotáGoogle Scholar
  92. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2013a) Growth in Latin America. http://www.oecd.org/general/focus/growth-in-latin-america.htm. Accessed 7 Nov 2013
  93. OECD (2013b) Latin America: Economic outlook 2014. Logistics and competitiveness for development. OECD Publishing. OECD, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, & Latin American Development Bank, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Olson DM, Dinerstein E (1998) The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conserv Biol 12(3):502–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Olson DM, Dinerstein ED, Wikramanayake ND, Burgess GVN, Powell EC, Underwood JA, D’Amico I, Itoua HE, Strand JC, Morrison CJ, Loucks TF, Allnutt TH (2002) The global 200: priority ecoregions for global conservation. Ann Mo Bot Gard 89:199–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ospina P (2001) Identidades en Galápagos: El sentimiento de una diferencia. Trama, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  97. Ospina P (2007) In: Falconí C (ed) Galápagos: migraciones, economía, cultura, conflictos, acuerdos. Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Sede Ecuador, Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, & Corporación Editora Nacional, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  98. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F Jr (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.279.5352.860 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pauly D, Christensen V, Guénette S, Pitcher J, Sumaila UR, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries [Insight review]. Nature 418:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pauly D, Alder J, Bennett E, Christensen V, Tyedmers P, Watson R (2003) The future for fisheries. Science 302:1359.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1088667 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pitcher TJ, Lam ME (2010) Fishful thinking: rhetoric, reality, and the sea before us. Ecol Soc., http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss2/art12/, 15
  102. PNG (2006) Plan de Manejo. Quito: Ministerio del Ambiente, Parque Nacional Galápagos. Arte Digital, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  103. PNG (Parque Nacional Galápagos) (1999) Plan de Manejo de Conservación y Uso Sustentable para la Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Unpublished, Puerto AyoraGoogle Scholar
  104. Pollnac RB, Poggi JJ, Fierro M (1987) Enfoque teórico y metodológico para el análisis de las comunidades pesqueras. In Centro Ecuatoriano de Planificación del Estado (ed) La pesca artesanal en el Ecuador. Escuela Politécnica del Litoral, Centro Ecuatoriano de Planificación del Estado, & Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, Quito, pp 141–154Google Scholar
  105. Radcliffe SA (2012) Development for a postneoliberal era? Sumak kawsay, living well and the limits to decolonisation in Ecuador. Geoforum 43:240–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ramírez J (2004) La pesca artesanal en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos: dinámica laboral y conflictos socio-ambientales (Disertación de Licenciatura). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  107. Reck GK (1983) The coastal fisheries in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: description and consequences for management in the context of marine environmental protection and regional development (Doctoral Dissertation). Christian-Albrechts-Universität, KielGoogle Scholar
  108. Rostworowski M (2015) Recursos naturales renovables y pesca, siglos VXI–XVII: curacas y sucesiones, costa norte (Obras completes IV). Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, LimaGoogle Scholar
  109. Schuhbauer A, Koch V (2013) Assessment of recreational fishery in the Galapagos marine reserve: failures and opportunities. Fish Res 144:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schwarz FA (1987) Prehistoric settlement pattern in the Valdivia Valley, southwest coastal Ecuador (Unpublished M. A. Thesis). University of Calgary, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  111. SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2009) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2009–2013: Construyendo un estado plurinacional e intercultural. República del Ecuador. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo. Versión Resumida, Quito, SENPLADESGoogle Scholar
  112. Song AM, Chuenpagdee R (2010) Operationalizing governability: a case study of a Lake Malawi fishery. Fish Fish 11:235–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. SRP (2017a) Flota artesanal: Número de pescadores artesanales. http://www.viceministerioap.gob.ec/flota-pescadoresar-artesanales0.html. Accessed 15 May 2017
  114. SRP (2017b) Flota artesanal: Número de caletas pesqueras. http://www.viceministerioap.gob.ec/flota-artesanal0-flota-pesquera-artesanal.html. Accessed 15 May 2017
  115. SRP (2017c) ‘Herramientas para combatir pesca ilegal en Ecuador fueron presentadas’ http://wwwviceministerioapgobec/subpesca3113-herramientas-para-combatir-pesca-ilegal-en-ecuador-fueron-presentadas-a-periodistashtml. Accessed 15 May 2017
  116. SRP (Subsecretaría de Recursos Pesqueros) (2013) Flota artesanal: comerciantes. http://www.subpesca.gob.ec/subpesca. Accessed 04 Oct 2013
  117. Staller JE (2001) Reassessing the developmental and chronological relationships of the formative of coastal Ecuador. J World Prehist 15(2):193–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Staller JE (2002) A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the initial introduction of maize into coastal Ecuador. J Archaeol Sci 29:33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stone S, Viteri C, Conrad J, Nøstbakken L, Franklin H (2006) Fisheries management in the Galapagos Marine Reserve: a bioeconomic perspective. Region 3 Barbados, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Jamaica, Peru, Suriname, The Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela, Economic and Sector Study Series. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  120. Stothert K (2008) Valdivia y el proceso civilizador del tercer milenio A.C.Nayra Kunan Pacha-Revista de Arqueología Social, 1(1), 1–18Google Scholar
  121. Suárez de Vivero JL, Rodríguez Mateos JC, Florido del Corral D (2008) The paradox of public participation in fisheries governance: the rising number of actors and the devolution process. Mar Policy 32:319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tassara E (ed) (1994) Pesca artesanal, acuicultura, y ambiente: experiencia y perspectivas de desarrollo. Memorias del Seminario Internacional Las Políticas de Desarrollo de la Pesca Artesanal en América Latina y el Caribe. Ministerio del Ambiente, Comisión Europea, y la Oficina Cooperación Italiana en Colombia. EcoEdiciones, BogotáGoogle Scholar
  123. Taylor JE, Hardner J, Stewart M (2009) Ecotourism and economic growth in the Galapagos: an island economy-wide analysis. Environ Dev Econ 14:139–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Teddlie C, Yu F (2007) Mixed methods sampling: a typology with examples. J Mixed Methods Res 1:77.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2345678906292430 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Thomas G, Anderson J, Chandrasekharan D, Kakabadse Y, Matiru V (1996) Leveling the playing field: promoting authentic and equitable dialogue under inequitable conditions. Presented at the global e-conference on addressing natural resource conflict through community forestry. Forests, trees and people Programme of the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. March-April 1996, RomeGoogle Scholar
  126. Toral-Granda V, Hearn A, Henderson S, Jones PJS (2011) Galapagos Marine Reserve – governance analysis. In: Jones PJS, Qiu W, De Santo EM (eds) Governing marine protected areas: getting the balance right. Technical Report to Marine & Coastal Ecosystems Branch, United Nations Environment Programme Vol. 2. Publishing Services Section, UNON, Nairobi, pp 97–104Google Scholar
  127. Vinueza LR, Branch GM, Branch ML, Bustamante RH (2006) Top-down herbivory and bottom-up El Niño effects on Galapagos rocky-shore communities. Ecol Monogr 76(1):111–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Viteri C, Chávez C (2007) Legitimacy, local participation, and compliance in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Ocean Coast Manag 50:253–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Development and Knowledge Sociology-Social Science DepartmentLeibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT)BremenGermany

Personalised recommendations