Introduction to Virtual Manufacturing

  • Kaushik Kumar
  • Divya Zindani
  • J. Paulo Davim
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


There has been a shift in paradigm in manufacturing from real to virtual. This has led to a rapid surge in the research interest for scientific community to explore more to this paradigm shift. The environment of physical manufacturing is now being simulated using the computers. The understanding of behavior of different components of physical manufacturing and then emulating the same on the computer has lead to reduction in amount of tests and tests before actual production. The present chapter aims to provide for deeper insight into virtual systems. A discussion on the Taxonomy of Virtual Manufacturing and Virtual Machine Tool systems has been carried in the chapter. Better understanding of the topic has been attempted through classification of the subsequent topics into Virtual reality, Web-Based, mathematical modeling and hardware interaction simulation. The chapter ends with the concluding remarks.


  1. Y. Altintas, S.D. Merdol, Virtual high performance milling. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 81–84 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. P. Butala, I. Vengust, R. Vrabič, L. Kuščer, Virtual manufacturing work systems. Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier (2008), pp. 129–132Google Scholar
  3. K. Erkorkmaz, C.H. Yeung, Y. Altintas, Virtual CNC system. Part II. High speed contouring application. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf 46(10), 1124–1138 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. H. Hanwu, W. Yueming, Web-based virtual operating of CNC milling machine tools. Comput. Indus. 60(9), 686–697 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. K. Iwata, M. Onosato, K. Teramoto, S. Osaki, Virtual manufacturing systems as advanced information infrastructure for integrating manufacturing resources and activities. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 46(1), 335–338 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Y.C. Kao, H.Y. Chen, Y.C. Chen, Development of a virtual controller integrating virtual and physical CNC. In Materials Science Forum, vol. 505 (Trans Tech Publications, 2006), pp. 631–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. S.L. Ko, T.T. Pham, Y.H. Kim, Visualization process for design and manufacturing of end mills. In International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005, August)Google Scholar
  8. K.I. Lee, S.D. Noh, Virtual manufacturing system—a test-bed of engineering activities. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 46(1), 347–350 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. W. Lin, J. Fu, Modeling and application of virtual machine tool. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence—Workshops, ICAT, 16–9 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. Y.B. Luo, S.K. Ong, D.F. Chen, A.Y.C. Nee, An Internet-enabled image-and model-based virtual machining system. Int. J. Prod. Res. 40(10), 2269–2288 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. L. Luo, G. Li, S. Sun, Q. Meng, Research on behavior simulation of multi-axis CNC machine tool in virtual environment. In 2010 International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA), vol. 3 (IEEE, 2010, March), pp. 31–34Google Scholar
  12. V.R. Marinov, S. Seetharamu, Virtual machining operation: a concept and an example. In SPIE Conference on Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing (2004, October), pp. 25–26Google Scholar
  13. S.K. Ong, L. Jiang, A.Y.C. Nee, An internet-based virtual CNC milling system. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 20(1), 20–30 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. M. Onosato, K. Iwata, Development of a virtual manufacturing system by integrating product models and factory models. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 42(1), 475–478 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. J.V. Owen, Virtual manufacturing. Manuf. Eng. 90(119), 84 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. S.F. Qin, R. Harrison, A.A. West, D.K. Wright, Development of a novel 3D simulation modelling system for distributed manufacturing. Comput. Indus. 54(1), 69–81 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Z.M. Qiu, Y.P. Chen, Z.D. Zhou, S.K. Ong, A.Y.C. Nee, Multi-user NC machining simulation over the WWW. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 18(1), 1–6 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. R. Radharamanan, Virtual manufacturing: an emerging technology. Age 7, 1 (2002)Google Scholar
  19. S. Röck, G. Pritschow, Real-time capable finite element models with closed-loop control: a method for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flexible systems. Prod. Eng. 1(1), 37–43 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Y. Seo, D.Y. Kim, S.H. Suh, Development of web-based CAM system. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28(1–2), 101–108 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. H. Shinno, Y. Ito, Generating method for structural configuration of machine tools (3rd paper, Variant design using directed graph). Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu 52(474), 788–793 (1986)Google Scholar
  22. X.L. Sui, L.J. Jin, J.H. Ge, J.T. Zhang, Z.W. Kong, The research on milling temperature and heat deformation of tool in virtual numerical control simulation. In Advanced Materials Research, vol. 97 (Trans Tech Publications, 2010), pp. 2865–2870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. M. Susanu, D. Dumur, Advanced axis control implementation within a virtual machine-tool environment. In 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Computer Aided Control Systems Design (IEEE, 2004, September), pp. 7–12Google Scholar
  24. S. Sun, L. Luo, G. Li, X. Zou, J. Yang, The virtual simulation system of numerical control machining. In International Workshop on Modelling, Simulation and Optimization, 2008, WMSO’08 (IEEE, 2008, December), pp. 313–318Google Scholar
  25. M.M. Tseng, J. Jiao, C.J. Su, Virtual prototyping for customized product development. Integr. Manuf. Syst. 9(6), 334–343 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. L. Wang, P. Orban, A. Cunningham, S. Lang, Remote real-time CNC machining for web-based manufacturing. Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf. 20(6), 563–571 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D. Wang, T. Yu, W. Wang, Study on virtual assembling and manufacturing of simulation system for numerical control machine tools. In The Sixth World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2006. WCICA 2006, vol. 2 (IEEE, 2006, June), pp. 6232–6236Google Scholar
  28. W.J. Wang, T.Y. Wang, S.B. Fan, W.Y. Wang, Research on material removal algorithm model in virtual milling process based on adaptive dynamic quadtrees algorithm. In Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 10 (Trans Tech Publications), pp. 822–827Google Scholar
  29. A. Xu, Y. Qu, Y. Gao, H. Hou, G. Duan, Development of a hybrid Web-based virtual NC milling system (2006)Google Scholar
  30. Y. Yao, J. Li, W.B. Lee, C.F. Cheung, Z. Yuan, VMMC: a test-bed for machining. Comput. Indus. 47(3), 255–268 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. W.S. Yun, J.H. Ko, D.W. Cho, K.F. Ehmann, Development of a virtual machining system, part 2: prediction and analysis of a machined surface error. Int. J. Machine Tools Manuf. 42(15), 1607–1615 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. W.S. Yun, J.H. Ko, D.W. Cho, Development of a virtual machine tool—Part 1: mechanistic cutting force model, machined surface error model, and feed rate scheduling model. Int. J. Korean Soc. Precision Eng. 4, 71–76 (2003)Google Scholar
  33. L. Zhu, C. Zhu, G. Wang, T. Yu, W. Wang, Research on virtual NC technique in turning and milling process. In 2007 IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics (IEEE, 2007, August), pp. 1675–1678Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBirla Institute of TechnologyMesra, RanchiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologySilcharIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations