Measuring Latent Variables in Space and/or Time: A Gender Statistics Exercise

  • Gaia Bertarelli
  • Franca Crippa
  • Fulvia Mecatti
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 46)


This paper concerns a Multivariate Latent Markov Model recently introduced in the literature for estimating latent traits in social sciences. Based on its ability of simultaneously dealing with longitudinal and spacial data, the model is proposed when the latent response variable is expected to have a time and space dynamic of its own, as an innovative alternative to popular methodologies such as the construction of composite indicators and structural equation modeling. The potentials of the proposed model and the added value with respect to the traditional weighted composition methodology, are illustrated via an empirical Gender Statistics exercise, focused on gender gap as the latent status to be measured and based on supranational o cial statistics for 30 European countries in the period 2010–2015.


Latent clustering Longitudinal data Spatial ordering Gender gap 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaia Bertarelli
    • 1
  • Franca Crippa
    • 2
  • Fulvia Mecatti
    • 2
  1. 1.University of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

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