Heat Exposure and the General Public: Heath Impacts, Risk Communication, and Mitigation Measures

Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Medical Earth Sciences book series (BRIEFSMEEASC)

Abstract

Extreme heat is the number one cause for weather-related death and poses a serious public health problem. Sensitivity to heat, however, may vary based on sociodemographic factors such as age, health status, availability of air-conditioning, and/or one’s degree of exposure to oppressive heat. To mitigate these heat hazards, various governmental agencies such as the National Weather Service have developed heat-health warning systems to communicate the dangers of heat and inform individuals of the appropriate actions to take during extreme heat conditions. Studies of these warning systems suggest that these heat-related warnings often fail to motivate behavior change, with individual differences in risk perception and inconsistent messaging between warning systems being two prominent factors in the literature. To gain greater insight into decision-making processes and behavior change associated with heat-health warning systems, future research should utilize social and behavioral theoretical frameworks.

Keywords

Heat waves Heat vulnerability Aging Weather warning system 

References

  1. 1.
    Abrahamson V, Wolf J, Lorenzoni I, Fenn B, Kovats S, Wilkinson P, Adger WN, Raine R (2008) Perceptions of heatwave risks to health: interview-based study of older people in London and Norwich, UK. J Public Health 31(1):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akompab DA, Bi P, Williams S, Grant J, Walker IA, Augoustinos M (2013) Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in Adelaide, Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10(6):2164–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alberini A, Gans W, Alhassan M (2011) Individual and public-program adaptation: coping with heat waves in five cities in Canada. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8(12):4679–4701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson BG, Bell ML (2009) Weather-related mortality: how heat, cold, and heat waves affect mortality in the United States. Epidemiology 20:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bao J, Li X, Yu C (2015) The construction and validation of the heat vulnerability index, a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:7220–7234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnett AG (2007) Temperature and cardiovascular deaths in the US elderly: changes over time. Epidemiology 18(3):369–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bartlett S (2008) Climate change and urban children: impacts and implications for adaptation in low-and middle-income countries. EnvironUrban 20:501–519Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bassil KL, Cole DC (2010) Effectiveness of public health interventions in reducing morbidity and mortality during heat episodes: a structured review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(3):991–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basu R (2009) High ambient temperature and mortality: a review of epidemiologic studies from 2001 to 2008. Environ Health 8(1):40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benmarhnia T, Alexander S, Price K, Smargiassi A, King N, & Kaufman JS (2017) The heterogeneity of vulnerability in public health: a heat wave action plan as a case study. Critical Public Health, 1–7Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berisha V, Hondula D, Roach M, White JR, McKinney B, Bentz D et al (2017) Assessing adaptation strategies for extreme heat: a public health evaluation of cooling centers in Maricopa County, Arizona. Weather Climate Soc 9(1):71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berry P, Richardson GR (2016) Approaches for building community resilience to extreme heat. In: Extreme weather, health, and communities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 351–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bobb JE, Peng RD, Bell ML, Dominici F (2014) Heat-related mortality and adaptation to heat in the United States. Envon Health Perspect 122:811–816Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bostrom A, Morgan M, Fischhoff B et al (1994) What do people know about climate change? 1. Mental models. Risk Anal 14:959–970.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1994.tb00065.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bostrom A, Morss R, Lazo J (2016) A mental models study of hurricane forecast and warning production, interpretation and decision making. Wea Clim Soc 8:111–129.  https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0033.1. [Published Online First: 22 November 2015]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Braga AL, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J (2001) The time course of weather-related deaths. Epidemiology 12(6):662–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chestnut LG, Breffle WS, Smith JB, Kalkstein LS (1998) Analysis of differences in hot-weather-related mortality across 44 US metropolitan areas. Environ Sci Pol 1(1):59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chow WTL, Chuang WC, Gober P (2012) Vulnerability to extreme heat in metropolitan phoenix: spatial, temporal, and demographic dimensions. Prof Geogr 64:286–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chowdhury PD, Haque CE, Driedger SM (2012) Public versus expert knowledge and perception of climate change-induced heat wave risk: a modified mental model approach. J Risk Res 15(2):149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chuang WC, Gober P (2015) Predicting hospitalization for heat-related illness at the census tract level: accuracy of a generic heat vulnerability index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). Environ Health Perspect 123:606–612Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Conti S, Meli P, Minelli G, Solimini R, Toccaceli V, Vichi M et al (2005) Epidemiologic study of mortality during the summer 2003 heat wave in Italy. Environ Res 98(3):390–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Curriero FC, Heiner KS, Samet JM, Zeger SL, Strug L, Patz JA (2002) Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the eastern United States. J Epidemiol 155(1):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis RE, Knappenberger PC, Michaels PJ, Novicoff WM (2003) Changing heat-related mortality in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 111:1712–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Debbage N, Shepherd JM (2015) The urban heat island effect and city contiguity. Comput Environ Urban Syst 54:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    DiLiberto T (2015) India heat wave kills thousands. NOAA: Available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/event-tracker/india-heat-wave-kills-thousands (Accessed 21 July 2017)
  26. 26.
    Foroni M, Salvioli G, Rielli R, Goldoni CA, Orlandi G, Sajani SZ et al (2007) A retrospective study on heat-related mortality in an elderly population during the 2003 heat wave in Modena, Italy: the Argento project. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62(6):647–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fouillet A, Rey G, Laurent F, Pavillon G, Bellec S, Ghihenneuc-Jouyaux C et al (2006) Excess mortality related to the August 2003 heat wave in France. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80(1):16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ebi KL, Paulson JA (2007) Climate change and children. Pediatr Clin NAm 54:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fuhrmann C (2017) Personal monitoring of occupational heat exposure among grounds management workers: Preliminary results from three university campuses, Eighth conference on environment and health, Seattle, WA, 24 Jan 2017Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gabriel KM, Endlicher WR (2011) Urban and rural mortality rates during heat waves in berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. Environ Pollut 159:2044–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Green RS, Basu R, Malig B, Broadwin R, Kim JJ, Ostro B (2010) The effect of temperature on hospital admissions in nine California counties. Int J Public Health 55:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gronlund CJ (2014) Racial and socioeconomic disparities in heat-related health effects and their mechanisms: a review. Curr Epidemiol Rep 1(3):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gosling SN, Bryce EK, Dixon PG, Gabriel KM, Gosling EY, Hanes JM et al (2014) A glossary for biometeorology. Int J Biometeorol 58(2):277–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grothmann T, Leitner M, Glas N, Prutsch A (2017) A five-steps methodology to design communication formats that can contribute to behavior change: the example of communication for health-protective behavior among elderly during heat waves. SAGE Open 7(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guo B, Wang Z, Yu Z, Wang Y, Yen NY, Huang R, Zhou X (2015) Mobile crowd sensing and computing: the review of an emerging human-powered sensing paradigm. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 48(1):7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hajat S, Kovats RS, Lachowycz K (2007) Heat-related and cold-related deaths in England and Wales: who is at risk? Occup Environ Med 64(2):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harlan SL, Brazel AJ, Prashad L, Stefanov WL, Larsen L (2006) Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress. Soc Sci Med 63:2847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Harlan SL, Declet-Barreto JH, Stefanov WL, Petitti DB (2013) Neighborhood effects on heat deaths: social and environmental predictors of vulnerability in Maricopa County, Arizona. Environ Health Perspect 121:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hawkins MD, Brown V, Ferrell J (2017) Assessment of NOAA National Weather Service methods to warn for extreme heat events. Weather Climate Soc 9(1):5–13.  https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0037.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hayden MH, Brenkert-Smith H, Wilhelmi OV (2011) Differential adaptive capacity to extreme heat: a Phoenix, Arizona, case study. Weather Climate Soc 3(4):269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Henderson SB, Wan V, Kosatsky T (2013) Differences in heat-related mortality across four ecological regions with diverse urban, rural, and remote populations in British Columbia. Canada Health Place 23:48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Isaksen TB, Yost MG, Hom EK, Ren Y, Lyons H, Fenske RA (2015) Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010. Rev Environ Health 30:51–64.  https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnson DP, Wilson JS (2009) The socio-spatial dynamics of extreme urban heat events: the case of heat-related deaths in Philadelphia. Appl Geogr 29(3):419–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Johnson DP, Stanforth A, Lulla V, Luber G (2012) Developing an applied extreme heat vulnerability index utilizing socioeconomic and environmental data. Appl Geogr 35:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kalkstein AJ, Sheridan SC (2007) The social impacts of the heat–health watch/warning system in Phoenix, Arizona: assessing the perceived risk and response of the public. Int J Biometeorol 52(1):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kalkstein LS, Davis RE (1989) Weather and human mortality: an evaluation of demographic and interregional responses in the United States. Ann Assoc Amer Geogr 79:44–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kilbourne EM (1999) The spectrum of illness during heat waves. Am J. Prev Med 16:359–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Klinenberg E (2003) Review of heat wave: a social autopsy of disaster in Chicago. N Engl J Med 348(7):666–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Knowlton K et al (2009) The 2006 California heat wave: impacts on hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Environ Health Perspect 117:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kovats RS, Hajat S, Wilkinson P (2004) Contrasting patterns of mortality and hospital admissions during hot weather and heat waves in greater London, UK. Occup Environ Med 61:893–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kravchenko J et al (2013) Minimization of heat wave morbidity and mortality. Am J PrevMed 44:274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kuras ER, Hondula DM, Brown-Saracino J (2015) Heterogeneity in individually experienced temperatures (IETs) within an urban neighborhood: insights from a new approach to measuring heat exposure. Int J Biometeorol 59(10):1363–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuras ER, Richardson MB, Calkins MM, Ebi KL, Hess JJ, Kintziger KW, Jagger MA, Middel A, Scott AA, Spector JT, Uejio CK, Vanos JK, Zaitchik BF, Gohlke JM, Hondula DM (2017) Opportunities and challenges for personal heat exposure research. Environ Health Perspect 125(8):085001.  https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP556 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lam HC, Li AM, Chan EY, Goggins WB 3rd (2016) The short-term association between asthma hospitalisations, ambient temperature, other meteorological factors and air pollutants in Hong Kong: a time-series study. Thorax 71(12):1097–1109.  https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lane K, Wheeler K, Charles-Guzman K, Ahmed M, Blum M, Gregory K, Graber N, Clark N, Matte T (2014) Extreme heat awareness and protective behaviors in New York City. J Urban Health 91(3):403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Li D, Bou-Zeid E (2013) Synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves: the impact in cities is larger than the sum of its parts. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 52(9):2051–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liang WM, Liu WP, Chou SY, Kuo HW (2008) Ambient temperature and emergency room admissions for acute coronary syndrome in Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 52:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lin S, Luo M, Walker RJ, Liu X, Hwang SA, Chinery R (2009) Extreme high temperatures and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiology 20:738–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Linares C, Diaz J (2008) Impact of high temperatures on hospital admissions: comparative analysis with previous studies about mortality (Madrid). Eur J Pub Health 18:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lowe T, Lorenzoni I (2007) Danger is all around: eliciting expert perceptions for managing climate change through a mental models approach. Glob Environ Chang 17:131–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Luber G, McGeehin M (2008) Climate change and extreme heat events. Amer J Prev Med 35:429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Madrigano J, Mittleman MA, Baccarelli A, Goldberg R, Melly S, von Klot S, Schwartz J (2013) Temperature, myocardial infarction, and mortality: effect modification by individual- and area-level characteristics. Epidemiology 24:439–446.  https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182878397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Maier G, Grundstein A, Jang W, Li C, Naeher LP, Shepherd M (2013) Assessing the performance of a vulnerability index during oppressive heat across Georgia, United States. Weather Clim. Soc 6:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McGeehin MA, Mirabelli M (2001) The potential impacts of climate variability and change on temperature-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 109:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Medina-Ramon M, Zanobetti A, Cavanagh DP, Schwartz J (2006) Extreme temperatures and mortality: assessing effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a multi-city case-only analysis. Environ Health Perspect 114:1331–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Morgan M, Fischhoff G, Bostrom A et al (2002) Risk communication: a mental models approach. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Moyer-Gusé E (2008) Toward a theory of entertainment persuasion: Explaining the persuasive effects of entertainment-education messages. Communication Theory, 18(3): 407–425. National Weather Service, 2017: Weather Fatalities 2016. Available at: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml
  68. 68.
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2005) NOAA Heat/Health watch warning system Improving forecasts and earnings for excessive heat - Excessive heat Program piloted in Philadelphia is becoming Worldwide Model. NOAA Magazine Available online at: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2366.htm
  69. 69.
    National Weather Service (NWS 2017) (2017) Weather Fatalities 2016. Available online at: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml
  70. 70.
    National Weather Service (NWS, 2015) WFO Non-precipitation weather products specification. Available online at www.nws. noaa.gov/directives/sym/pd01005015curr.pdf
  71. 71.
    Naughton MP, Henderson A, Mirabelli MC, Kaiser R, Wilhelm JL, Kieszak SM et al (2002) Heat-related mortality during a 1999 heat wave in Chicago. Am J Prev Med 22(4):221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ogbomo AS, Gronlund CJ, O’Neill MS, Konen T, Cameron L, Wahl R (2017) Vulnerability to extreme heat-associated hospitalization in three counties in Michigan, USA, 2000-2009. Int J Biometeorol 61:833–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    O’Neill MS, Ebi KL (2009) Temperature extremes and health: impacts of climate variability and change in the United States. J Occup Environ Med 51:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    O’Neill MS, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J (2003) Modifiers of the temperature and mortality association in seven US cities. Am J Epidemiol 157(12):1074–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pillai SK et al (2014) Heat illness: predictors of hospital admissions among emergency department visits-Georgia, 2002-2008. J Commun Health 39:90–98.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9743-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Prentice-Dunn S, Rogers RW (1986) Protection motivation theory and preventive health: beyond the health belief model. Health Educ Res 1(3):153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Quinn A, Tamerius JD, Perzanowski M, Jacobson JS, Goldstein I, Acosta L, Shaman J (2014) Predicting indoor heat exposure risk during extreme heat events. Sci Total Environ 490:686–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reid CE, O’Neill MS, Gronlund CJ, Brines SJ, Brown DG, Diez-Roux AV, Schwartz J (2009) Mapping community determinants of heat vulnerability. Environ Health Perspect 117:1730–1736Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reid CE, Mann JK, Alfasso R, English PB, King GC, Lincoln RA, Margolis HG, Rubado DJ, Sabato JE, West NL et al (2012) Evaluation of a heat vulnerability index on abnormally hot days: an environmental public health tracking study. Environ Health Perspect 120:715–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Richard L, Kosatsky T, Renouf A (2011) Correlates of hot day air-conditioning use among middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart and lung diseases: the role of health beliefs and cues to action. Health Educ Res 26(1):77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ricketts M, Shanteau J, McSpadden B, Fernandez-Medina KM (2010) Using stories to battle unintentional injuries: narratives in safety and health communication. Soc Sci Med 70(9):1441–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Revich BA (2011) Heat-wave, air quality and mortality in European Russia in summer 2010: preliminary assessment. Yekologiya Cheloveka Hum Ecol 7:3–9Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Robine JM, Cheung SL, le Roy S, van Oyen H, Griffith C, Michel JP, Herrmann FR (2008) Death toll exceede 70,000 in Europe during the summer of 2003. C R Biol 331:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sampson NR, Gronlund CJ, Buxton MA, Catalano L, White-Newsome JL, Conlon KC, Parker EA (2013) Staying cool in a changing climate: reaching vulnerable populations during heat events. Glob Environ Chang 23(2):475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sarofim, MC, Saha S, Hawkins MD, Mills DM (2016) Temperature-related death and illness. Climate and health assessment. Available online at: https://health2016.globalchange.gov/temperature-related-death-and-illness
  86. 86.
    Schwartz SH (1977) Normative influences on altruism. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Semenza JC, Wilson DJ, Parra J, Bontempo BD, Hart M, Sailor DJ, George LA (2008) Public perception and behavior change in relationship to hot weather and air pollution. Environ Res 107(3):401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Semenza JC, McCullough JE, Flanders WD, McGeehin MA, Lumpkin JR (1999) Excess hospital admissions during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Am J Prev Med 16:269–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(99)00025-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Semenza JC, Rubin CH, Falter KH et al (1996) Heat-related deaths during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. N Engl J Med 335:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sheridan SC (2007) A survey of public perception and response to heat warnings across four North American cities: an evaluation of municipal effectiveness. Int J Biometeorol 52(1):3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-006-0052-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sheridan SC, Kalkstein LS (2004) Progress in heat watch–warning system technology. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 85:1931–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sheridan SC, Dolney TJ (2003) Heat, mortality, and level of urbanization: measuring vulnerability across Ohio, USA. Clim Res 24:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Soneja S, Jiang C, Fisher J, Upperman CR, Mitchell C, Sapkota A (2016) Exposure to extreme heat and precipitation events associated with increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland, U.S.A. Environ Health 15:57.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0142-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stafoggia M, Forestiere F, Agostini D, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Cadum E et al (2006) Vulnerability to heat-related mortality: a multicity, population-based, case-crossover analysis. Epidemiology 17(3):315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stone B (2012) The city and the coming climate: climate change in the places we live. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stone B, Hess JJ, Frumkin H (2010) Urban form and extreme heat events: are sprawling cities more vulnerable to climate change than compact cities? Environ Health Perspect 118(10):1425–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Toloo G, FitzGerald G, Aitken P, Verrall K, Tong S (2013) Evaluating the effectiveness of heat warning systems: systematic review of epidemiological evidence. Int J Public Health 58(5):667–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Udtha M, Nomie K, Yu E, Sanner J (2015) Novel and emerging strategies for longitudinal data collection. J Nurs Scholarsh 47(2):152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vanos JK, McKercher GR, Naughton K, Lochbaum M (2017) Schoolyard shade and sun exposure: assessment of personal monitoring during children's physical activity. Photochem Photobiol 93(4):1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wagner K (2007) Mental models of flash floods and landslides. Risk Analysis 2007 27:671–682.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00916.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Williams CW (2016) Children forgotten in hot cars: a hybrid mental models approach for improving public health messaging. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Georgia, Athens, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Williams CW, Grundstein AJ (2017) Children forgotten in hot cars: a mental models approach for improving public health messaging. Injury Prevention, In pressGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Winquist A, Grundstein A, Chang HH, Hess J, Sarnat S (2016) Warm season temperatures and emergency department visits in Atlanta, GA. Environ Res 147:314–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    White-Newsome JL, McCormick S, Sampson N, Buxton MA, O'Neill MS, Gronlund CJ, Parker EA (2014) Strategies to reduce the harmful effects of extreme heat events: a four-city study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(2):1960–1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wolf T, Chuang W-C, McGregor G (2015) On the science-policy bridge: do spatial heat vulnerability assessment studies influence policy? Int J Res Public Health 12:13321–13349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wolf T, McGregor G, Analitis A (2013) Performance assessment of a heat wave vulnerability index for greater London, United Kingdom. Weather Clim Soc 6:32–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ye X, Wolff R, Yu W, Vaneckova P, Pan X, Tong S (2012) Ambient temperature and morbidity: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Environ Health Perspect 120(10):19–28Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zhou Y, Shepherd JM (2010) Atlanta's urban heat island under extreme heat conditions and potential mitigation strategies. Nat Hazards 52(3):639–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations