Peacemaking and Peacebuilding Efforts by Various Actors in Northern Uganda

  • Sidonia AngomEmail author
Part of the The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science book series (APESS, volume 22)


A number of cross-cutting issues emerged in northern Uganda of unsuccessful attempts by the various initiatives to end the war through a negotiated settlement. One theme that emerged consistently was the perceived reluctance of both the Government of Uganda (GoU) and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) to engage with one another in political dialogue. The GoU viewed the LRA as lacking comprehensive political objectives and called its members ‘common criminals’, while the LRA lacked trust and confidence in the GoU but trusted the spiritual ideology of its own movement. Other factors that exacerbated the situation were barriers caused by both limited channels for communication between the senior leaders and the difficulties in developing enough empathy and common language to bridge the world-views of the protagonists. Peace initiatives need to be persevered with, and not squandered or marginalised, in the efforts to bring war to an end. Ugandans and other countries that have experienced conflict have learnt the lessons of inclusiveness and flexibility, including the crucial role of women. It is argued that the role of women is an indispensable mechanism for trust and confidence-building that enhances genuine reconciliation in societies affected by conflict.


Peacemaking Peacebuilding Negotiation Accountabilty Disarmament Demobilisation Reintegration Mediation 


  1. Among, Barbara, “Summary of the Juba Talks”, in: The East African (26 March 2007): 3.Google Scholar
  2. Bainomugisha, A.; Tumushabe, G., 2005: “The Torturous Peace Process in Northern Uganda: An Analysis of Peace Initiatives and Prospects for a Settlement”, in: MACOMBA Policy and Academic Research Series, 1 (Kampala: Makerere University).Google Scholar
  3. Ekayu, J., 2015: “An NGO Perspective to Countering Violent Extremism”, in: The Journal of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, 7,9: 18–24.Google Scholar
  4. Esuruku, R.S., 2011: “Horizons of Peace and Development in Northern Uganda”, in: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 11,3: 111–134.Google Scholar
  5. Finnistrom, S., 1997: “Living with Bad Surroundings: War and Uncertainty in Northern Uganda”, in: Working Papers in Cultural Anthropology, 9 (Sweden: Uppsala University, Department of Cultural Anthropology & Ethnology).Google Scholar
  6. Focus group discussion with women and men (Kitgum, 25 June 2010).Google Scholar
  7. Focus group discussion with women and men (Gulu, 29 August 29 2009).Google Scholar
  8. Focus group discussion with women and men (Gulu, 11 January 2010).Google Scholar
  9. Focus group discussion with women (Kitgum, 29 June 2010).Google Scholar
  10. Focus group discussion with women (Pader, 20 July 2010).Google Scholar
  11. Galtung, J., 1996: Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict Development and Civilisation (London: Sage Publications).Google Scholar
  12. Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2010: Trail of Death in the Democratic Republic of Congo (New York, London, Brussels: Human Rights Watch).Google Scholar
  13. International Criminal Court (ICC), 2004: “President of Uganda refers situation concerning the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) to the ICC”, press release: Statement by the Chief Prosecutor on the Uganda arrest warrant (29 January 2004); at:;idem (14 October 2005).Google Scholar
  14. International Crisis Group (ICG), 2004: “Northern Uganda: Understanding and Solving the Conflict”, in: Africa Report, 77 (14 April) (Brussels: ICG): 17.Google Scholar
  15. International Crisis Group (ICG), 2006: “Beyond Victimhood: Women’s Peacebuilding in Sudan, Congo and Uganda”, in: Africa Report, 112 (28 June) (Brussels: ICG); at: (2 September 2009).
  16. International Crisis Group (ICG), 2006: Conflict history: Uganda updates November. Brussels.Google Scholar
  17. International Crisis Group (ICG), 2007: “Northern Uganda: Seizing the Opportunity for Peace”, in: Africa Report, 124 (26 April) (Brussels: ICG).Google Scholar
  18. International Crisis Group (ICG), 2008: “The Road to Peace, with or without Kony”, in: Africa Report, 146 (10 December).Google Scholar
  19. Interview with Col. Water Ochora (Gulu, 23 August 2009).Google Scholar
  20. Interview with Nobert Mao, LV Chairperson (Gulu, 11 January 2010).Google Scholar
  21. Neu, J., 2002: “Restoring Relations between Uganda and Sudan: The Carter Center Process”, in: Okello, Lucima (Ed.): Protracted Conflict, Elusive Peace, Initiatives to End the Violence in Northern Uganda: Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, 11: 46–51.Google Scholar
  22. Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), 2007: Peace, Recovery and Development Plan for Northern Uganda (Kampala, OPM).Google Scholar
  23. Oguru-Otto, P., 2002: “Implementing the 1999 Nairobi Agreement”, in: Okello, Lucima (Ed.): Protracted Conflict, Elusive Peace, Initiatives to End the Violence in Northern Uganda: Accord: An international Review of Peace initiatives, 11: 52–57.Google Scholar
  24. Reychler, L. 2001: “From Conflict to Sustainable Peacebuilding-Concepts and Analytical Tools”, in: Reychler, Luc; Paffenholz, Tania (Eds.): Peacebuilding—A Field Guide (London: Lynne Reinner Publishers).Google Scholar
  25. Tindifa, S.B.; Nampewo, Z.; Luutu M.B.; Okumu F.; Musubika C.; Ojera J.; Kalema B., 2006: Listen to the People! Towards an Inclusive Approach to the Peace process in Northern Uganda. HURIPEC Working Paper No. 3 (Kampala: Makerere University, Faculty of Law).Google Scholar
  26. USIP, 2013: “Special Report: Countering Violent Extremism: A Peacebuilding Perspective (18 April 2017).
  27. Wasonga, J., 2009: “Rediscovering Mato Oput: The Acholi Justice System and the Conflict in Northern Uganda”, in: African Peace and Conflict Journal, 2,1: 27–38.Google Scholar
  28. WHO, 2015: “Healing Child Soldiers” (12 April 2017).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Constituent College of AgricultureGulu UniversityMoroto, KaramojaUganda

Personalised recommendations