Arthropods and Health

  • Jerome Goddard
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

Members of the phylum Arthropoda are characterized by segmented bodies; paired, jointed appendages (legs and antennae); an exoskeleton; and bilateral symmetry. Included in this group are many creatures such as crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, and insects. This chapter focuses on the classification, growth, and development of arthropods, providing key morphological characteristics of each arthropod group. Identification strategies for arthropods are presented, with discussion about traditional morphological identification techniques versus more recent molecular identification. The medical impact of arthropods, particularly insects and ticks, is provided, including both direct and indirect effects on human health. There is considerable information provided concerning negative health impacts such as bites, stings, allergic reactions, and disease transmission.

Keywords

Arthropods Classification Identification Morphology Insects Disease transmission Allergy Bites Stings History Public health 

References

  1. 1.
    Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF. An introduction to the study of insects. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing; 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lane RP, Crosskey RW. Medical insects and arachnids. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1996. p. 723.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herbert PDN, Ratnasingham S, deWaard JR. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. R Soc London Ser B. 2003;270:S96–S9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Will KW, Rubinoff D. Myth of the molecule: DNA barcodes for species cannot replace morphology for identication and classification. Cladistics. 2004;20:47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sperling F. Butterfly molecular systematics: from species definitions to higher-lever phylogenies. In: Boggs CL, Watt WB, HEhrlich PR, editors. Butterflies: ecology and evolution taking flight. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2003. p. 431–58.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bressler K, Shelton C. Ear foreign-body removal: a review of 98 consecutive cases. Laryngoscope. 1993;103:367–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cushing E. History of entomology in World War II. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution; 1957. p. 117.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mumcuoglu YK, Zias J. Head lice from hair combs excavated in Israel and dated from the first century BC to the eighth century AD. J Med Entomol. 1988;25:545–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoeppli R. Parasitic diseases in Africa and the Western Hemisphere: early documentation and transmission by the slave trade. Acta Tropica Suppl. 1969;10:33–46.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harwood RF, James MT. Entomology in human and animal health. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan; 1979. p. 548.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crosby MC. The American plague. New York: Berkley Books; 2006. p. 308.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Snetsinger R. The Ratcatcher's child: history of the pest control industry. Cleveland: Franzak and Foster Co.; 1983. p. 294.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freedman B. Sanitarian's handbook. 4th ed. New Orleans: Peerless Publishing Co.; 1977.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anonymous. An enduring reminder of the importance of public health. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barnard JH. Studies of 400 hymenoptera sting deaths in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1973;52:259–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frazier CA. Insect allergy: allergic reactions to bites of insects and other arthropods. Warren H. Green: St. Louis; 1969. p. 383.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goddard J. Direct injury from arthropods. Lab Med. 1994;25:365–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reisman RE. Insect stings. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:523–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O'Neil ME, Mack KA, Gilchrist J. Epidemiology of non-canine bite and sting injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments, 2001–2004. Public Health Rep. 2007;122:764–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goddard J. Physician's guide to arthropods of medical importance. 6th ed. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis (CRC); 2013. p. 412.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simard JM, Watt DD. Venoms and toxins. In: Polis GA, editor. The biology of scorpions. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1990. p. 414–44.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alexander JO. Arthropods and human skin. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1984. p. 422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sherman RA. Maggot debridement in modern medicine. Inf Med. 1998;15:651–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rossi AJ, Rossi A, Marin-Neto JA. Chagas' disease. Lancet. 2010;375:1388–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    WHO. African trypanosomiasis: World Health Organization, Media Center., Fact Sheet Number 259. Geneva: Switzerland; 2010. p. 6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Calisher CH. Persistent emergence of dengue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:738–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gubler DJ. Epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: a global public health problem in the 21st century. In: Scheld WM, Armstrong D, Hughes JM, editors. Emerging infections, vol. 1. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 1998. p. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spira AM. Dengue: an underappreciated threat. Inf Med. 2005;22:304–6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Enserink M. Malaria's miracle drug in danger. Science (News Focus). 2010;328:844–6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Strausbaugh LJ. Emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to us all. Am Fam Phys. 1997;55:111–7.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF. Tropical infectious diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p. 1130.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    CDC. Summary of notifiable infectious diseases and conditions -- United States, 2015. CDC, MMWR. 2017;64(53):1–144.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Paddock CD, Childs J. Ehrlichia chaffeensis: a prototypical emerging pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:37–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoffman DR. Allergic reactions to biting insects. In: Levine MI, Lockey RF, editors. Monograph on insect allergy. 2nd ed. Milwaukee: American Academy of Allergy and Immunology; 1986.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moffitt JE, de Shazo RD. Allergic and other reactions to insects. In: Rich RR, Fleisher WT, Kotzin BL, Schroeser HW, editors. Rich's clinical immunology: principles and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Mosby; 2001.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moffitt JE, Venarske D, Goddard J, Yates AB, deShazo RD. Allergic reactions to Triatoma bites. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91(2):122–8; quiz 8–30, 94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Minocha R, Wang C, Dang K, Webb CE, Fernández-Peñas P, Doggett SL. Systemic and erythrodermic reactions following repeated exposure to bites from the common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Aust Entomol. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1111/aen.12250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gluck JC, Pacin MP. Asthma from mosquito bites: a case report. Ann Allergy. 1986;56:492–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Commins SP, James HR, Kelly LA, Pochan SL, Workman LJ, Perzanowski MS, et al. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1286–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Platts-Mills TA, Schuyler AJ, Tripathi A, Commins SP. Anaphylaxis to the carbohydrate side chain alpha-gal. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2015;35:247–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ramey K, Stewart PH. Top ten facts you should know about "alpha-gal," the newly described delayed red meat allergy. J Miss State Med Assoc. 2016;57:279–81.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gore JC, Schal C. Cockroach allergen biology and mitigation in the indoor environment. Annu Rev Entomol. 2007;52:439–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Spieksma FTM. The mite fauna of house dust, with particular reference to the house dust mite. Acarologia. 1967;9:226–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spieksma FTM. The house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, producer of house dust allergen. Thesis, University of Leiden, Netherlands, p. 65; 1967.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Htut T, Vickers L. The prevention of mite-allergic asthma. Int J Environ Health Res. 1995;5:47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cameron MM. Can house dust mite-triggered atopic dermatitis be alleviated using acaricides. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosenstreich DL, Eggleston P, Kattan M, Baker D, Slavin RG, Gergen P, et al. The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1356–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rabito FA, Carlson JC, He H, Werthmann D, Schal C. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;140:565–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gad el Rab MO, Kay AB. Widespread immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity in the Sudan to the "green nimitti" midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1980;66:190–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kay AB, MacLean CM, Wilkinson AH, Gad El Rab MO. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in a Sudanese community seasonally exposed to a potent airborne allergen, the "green nimitti" midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983;71:345–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kagen SL, Yunginger JW, Johnson R. Lake fly allergy: incidence of chironomid sensitivity in an atopic population. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984;73:187.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arlian LG. Arthropod allergens and human health. Annu Rev Entomol. 2002;47:395–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lillie TH, Pratt GK. The hazards of ingesting beetle larvae. USAF Med Ser Dig. 1980;31:32.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jupp WW. A carpet beetle larva from the digestive tract of a woman. J Parasitol. 1956;42:172.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Okumura GT. A report of canthariasis and allergy caused by Trogoderma. Calif Vect Views. 1967;14:19–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Goddard
    • 1
  1. 1.Extension Professor of Medical EntomologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA

Personalised recommendations