Clinical Manifestations

  • Ayah Oglat
  • Eamonn M. M. QuigleyEmail author
Part of the Clinical Gastroenterology book series (CG)


Though a variety of upper gastrointestinal symptoms are common among diabetics, their true prevalence, relationships to diabetes control, and other complications as well as underlying upper gastrointestinal (GI) sensori-motor dysfunction are often unclear. For example, though esophageal dysmotility is common in diabetes, its clinical significance in terms of symptomatology or as an indicator of gastric motor dysfunction remains to be defined. Similarly, studies on the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among diabetics have arrived at conflicting conclusions regarding the true prevalence of this association; available data, in contrast, suggests that diabetics are at increased risk for the development of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer. Gastroparesis is the best known and most extensively studied of the upper GI complications of diabetes; here again relationships between symptoms, gastric emptying rate, and glycemia are complex and pose significant clinical challenges. Though traditionally ascribed to the effects of autonomic neuropathy, more recent studies have revealed a variety of morphological, ultrastructural, and functional abnormalities in the enteric neuromuscular apparatus.


Diabetes mellitus Esophageal dysmotility Gastroesophageal reflux disease Esophageal candidiasis Gastroparesis Accelerated gastric emptying 



Barrett’s esophagus


Gastroesophageal pressure gradient


Gastroesophageal reflux disease




Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Human immunodeficiency virus


Interstitial cells of Cajal


Lower esophageal sphincter


Laryngopharyngeal reflux


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug


Peptic ulcer disease


Tumor necrosis factor


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lynda K. and David M. Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyHouston Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

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