A Concise History of Computing

  • Gerard O’Regan


This chapter presents a brief history of computing including a discussion of the first digital computers, the first commercial computers, the SAGE air defence system, the invention of the transistor by William Shockley and others at Bell Labs, and early transistor computers, the invention of the integrated circuit by Jack Kirby at Texas Instruments, the development of the IBM System/360, and its influence on later computer development, later mainframes and minicomputers, including DEC’s minicomputers. We discuss the revolutionary invention of the microprocessor, and how it led to home computers such as the Apple I and II home computers, Commodore computers, Atari computers, the Sinclair ZX 81 and ZX spectrum computers, and the Apple Macintosh, which was released in 1984. Finally, we discuss the introduction of the IBM personal computer.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SQC ConsultingMallowIreland

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