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Neuroanatomical Structure of the MCH System

  • Jackson C. Bittencourt
  • Giovanne B. Diniz
Chapter

Abstract

The mammalian melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system has been studied for almost 30 years as of the writing of this chapter. The understanding of any neural system starts with its structure, as the anatomical organization of its peptides and receptors provides important clues about its physiological activity. With that in mind, the MCH system will be reviewed as a whole in the first segment of this chapter, including the genes and proteins that comprise this system. In the following segment, a description of the morphological and neurochemical characteristics of MCH neurons will be provided, including the areas in the central nervous system where these neurons are found and their projection pathways and targets. In the last segment, the receptors for MCH will be briefly discussed, and the available anatomical information about these receptors will be presented to the reader. By the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to identify the sites of MCH synthesis, the major targets of MCH action, and the areas responsive to MCH owing to the presence of its receptor.

Keywords

Melanin-concentrating hormone Neuropeptide E-I NEI Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor MCHR1 MCHR2 Lateral hypothalamic area 

List of Abbreviations

3V

Third ventricle

3Vdc

Third ventricle dorsal cap

aa

Amino acid(s)

AHA

Anterior hypothalamic area

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

AROM

Antisense-RNA-overlapping-MCH gene

AVP

Arginine vasopressin

BNST

Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

CART

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript

CNS

Central nervous system

CRF

Corticotropin-releasing factor

f

Fornix

GAD67

Glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa

GPCR

G protein-coupled receptor

ic

Internal capsule

IHy

Incertohypothalamic area

IRE

Interferon-gamma responsive element

LDT

Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

LHA

Lateral hypothalamic area

MCH

Melanin-concentrating hormone (peptide)

MCHR1

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (peptide)

MCHR1

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (primate gene)

Mchr1

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (rodent gene)

MCHR2

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 2 (peptide)

MCHR2

Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 2 (primate gene)

ME

Median eminence

mfb

Medial forebrain bundle

mt

Mammillothalamic tract

MGOP

MCH-gene-overprinted-polypeptide

MPOA

Medial preoptic area

NEI

Neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine

NGE

Neuropeptide glycine-glutamic acid

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

opt

Optic tract

ORF

Open reading frame

ORX

Orexin/hypocretin

PACAP

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

PC

Prohormone convertase(s)

PH

Posterior hypothalamic area

Pmch

Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (rodent gene)

PMCH

Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (primate gene)

PMCHL1

Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone linked gene 1 (chimeric gene)

PMCHL2

Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone linked gene 2 (chimeric gene)

pmPRt

Paramedian pontine reticular formation

ppMCH

Prepro-melanin-concentrating hormone

PVH

Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

REM

Rapid eye movement sleep

SDL

Subcoeruleus/sublaterodorsal nucleus

SLC-1

Somatostatin-like coupled receptor 1, same as MCHR1

SP

Substance P

SSTR

Somatostatin receptor(s)

TM

Transmembrane

TMdm

Tuberomammillary nucleus, dorsomedial part

Tu

Olfactory tubercle

X-ir

Immunoreactive to X

ZI

Zona incerta

α-MSH

α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Notes

Acknowledgments

The writing of this chapter would not be possible without the funding granted by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo [São Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP], grants #2010/52068-0 and #2016/02224-1 [JCB] and #2016/02748-0 [GBD]. JCB is also a recipient of a grant from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior [Agency for the Advancement of Higher Education] and the Comité Français d’Evaluation de la Coopération Universitaire avec le Brésil [French Committee for the Evaluation of Academic and Scientific Cooperation with Brazil], CAPES-COFECUB grant #848/15. JCB is an investigator with the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq, Brazil], recipient of grant #426378/2016-4.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Centre for Neuroscience and Behavior, Institute of PsychologyUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

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