Cardiovascular Pharmacology in Adult Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

  • Ali DabbaghEmail author
  • Ardeshir Tajbakhsh
  • Zahra Talebi
  • Samira Rajaei


The word “drug” originated from a French word “drogue,” which also came from “droge-vate” from Middle Dutch meaning “dry barrels” (Harper, Douglas. “drug ”. Online Etymology Dictionary ). This concept is referring to the preservation of pharmaceutical plants in barrels. As Claude Bernard quoted in 1865, “everything is poisonous, nothing is poisonous, and it is all a matter of dose” (Bernard, Claude. An introduction to the study of experimental study; 1865). Therefore in this chapter, we are reviewing some clinical pharmacological titles including inotropes, vasoactive agents, diuretics, antihypertensive agents, anti-arrhythmic agents, anesthetic drugs, agents affecting autonomic nervous systems, anticoagulation and thrombolysis drugs, blood products, and antibiotics.

In this chapter, we emphasize on main clinical consideration and dosage in addition to indications and contraindications, in other words when will the drug be poisonous as quoted above. The aim of this chapter is to have a practical, clinical, and logical approach in pharmaceutical management of patients with heart disease.


Heart disease Cardiology Cardiac medications Adult cardiac surgery Pharmacology Vasoactive agents Inotropes Phenylephrine hydrochloride Vasopressin Epinephrine Dopamine hydrochloride Norepinephrine bitartrate Levophed Milrinone lactate Dobutamine phosphate Levosimendan Glyceryl trinitrate Nitroglycerin Hydralazine Prostaglandin E1 Alprostadil Sodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate Sodium nitroprusside Phentolamine mesylate Phentolamine Regitine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) Diuretics Pulmonary hypertension Nitric oxide Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors Endothelin receptor blockers Anti-arrhythmic agents Analgesic agents Sedative drugs Intravenous anesthetic agents Ramsay sedation scale (Ramsay) Sedation-agitation scale (SAS) Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS) Volatile anesthetics Neuromuscular blocking agents Stress ulcer Anticoagulants (oral and parenteral forms) Antiplatelet agents Thrombolytic agents Novel oral anticoagulants Antifibrinolytic agents Antibiotic prophylaxis 


  1. Abman SH, Hansmann G, Archer SL, Ivy DD, Adatia I, Chung WK, Hanna BD, Rosenzweig EB, Raj JU, Cornfield D, Stenmark KR, Steinhorn R, Thebaud B, Fineman JR, Kuehne T, Feinstein JA, Friedberg MK, Earing M, Barst RJ, Keller RL, Kinsella JP, Mullen M, Deterding R, Kulik T, Mallory G, Humpl T, Wessel DL. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension: guidelines from the american heart association and american thoracic society. Circulation. 2015;132:2037–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ageno W, Gallus AS, Wittkowsky A, Crowther M, Hylek EM, Palareti G. Oral anticoagulant therapy: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141:e44S–88S.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Naher A, Wright D, Devonald MAJ, Pirmohamed M. Renal function monitoring in heart failure—what is the optimal frequency? A narrative review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;84(1):5–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen HD, Driscoll DJ, Shaddy RE, Feltes TF. Moss & Adams’ heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents: including the fetus and young adult. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Allpress AL, Rosenthal GL, Goodrich KM, Lupinetti FM, Zerr DM. Risk factors for surgical site infections after pediatric cardiovascular surgery. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:231–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Amanfu RK, Saucerman JJ. Cardiac models in drug discovery and development: a review. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2011;39:379–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arora TK, Arora AK, Sachdeva MK, Rajput SK, Sharma AK. Pulmonary hypertension: molecular aspects of current therapeutic intervention and future direction. J Cell Physiol. 2017.
  8. Atkins DL, Berger S, Duff JP, Gonzales JC, Hunt EA, Joyner BL, Meaney PA, Niles DE, Samson RA, Schexnayder SM. Part 11: pediatric basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132:S519–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Atz AM, Wessel DL. Inhaled nitric oxide in the neonate with cardiac disease. Semin Perinatol. 1997;21:441–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bangash MN, Kong ML, Pearse RM. Use of inotropes and vasopressor agents in critically ill patients. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2015–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayat F, Faritous Z, Aghdaei N, Dabbagh A. A study of the efficacy of furosemide as a prophylaxis of acute renal failure in coronary artery bypass grafting patients: a clinical trial. ARYA Atheroscler. 2015;11:173–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Beck G, Brinkkoetter P, Hanusch C, Schulte J, van Ackern K, van der Woude FJ, Yard BA. Clinical review: immunomodulatory effects of dopamine in general inflammation. Crit Care. 2004;8:485–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Beghetti M, Wacker Bou Puigdefabregas J, Merali S. Sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2014;12:1157–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Begum N, Shen W, Manganiello V. Role of PDE3A in regulation of cell cycle progression in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells and oocytes: implications in cardiovascular diseases and infertility. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011;11:725–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianchi MO, Cheung PY, Phillipos E, Aranha-Netto A, Joynt C. The effect of milrinone on splanchnic and cerebral perfusion in infants with congenital heart disease prior to surgery: an observational study. Shock. 2015;44:115–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Biban P, Gaffuri M. Vasopressin and terlipressin in neonates and children with refractory septic shock. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14:186–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bihari D, Prakash S, Bersten A. Low-dose vasopressin in addition to noradrenaline may lead to faster resolution of organ failure in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2014;42:671–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bomb R, Oliphant CS, Khouzam RN. Dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2015;116:148–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Bond R, Olshansky B, Kirchhof P. Recent advances in rhythm control for atrial fibrillation. F1000Res. 2017;6:1796.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bourenne J, Hraiech S, Roch A, Gainnier M, Papazian L, Forel JM. Sedation and neuromuscular blocking agents in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Transl Med. 2017;5:291.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bracht H, Calzia E, Georgieff M, Singer J, Radermacher P, Russell JA. Inotropes and vasopressors: more than haemodynamics! Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2009–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brissaud O, Botte A, Cambonie G, Dauger S, de Saint Blanquat L, Durand P, Gournay V, Guillet E, Laux D, Leclerc F, Mauriat P, Boulain T, Kuteifan K. Experts’ recommendations for the management of cardiogenic shock in children. Ann Intensive Care. 2016;6:14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brunner N, de Jesus Perez VA, Richter A, Haddad F, Denault A, Rojas V, Yuan K, Orcholski M, Liao X. Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery. Pulm Circ. 2014;4:10–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bucher BT, Warner BW, Dillon PA. Antibiotic prophylaxis and the prevention of surgical site infection. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011;23:334–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cannesson M, Jian Z, Chen G, Vu TQ, Hatib F. Effects of phenylephrine on cardiac output and venous return depend on the position of the heart on the Frank-Starling relationship. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113:281–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Capodanno D, Bhatt DL, Goto S, O’Donoghue ML, Moliterno DJ, Tamburino C, Angiolillo DJ. Safety and efficacy of protease-activated receptor-1 antagonists in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:2006–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Carroll SJ, Ferris A, Chen J, Liberman L. Efficacy of prostaglandin E1 in relieving obstruction in coarctation of a persistent fifth aortic arch without opening the ductus arteriosus. Pediatr Cardiol. 2006;27:766–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Cata JP, Ramirez MF, Velasquez JF, Di AI, Popat KU, Gottumukkala V, Black DM, Lewis VO, Vauthey JN. Lidocaine stimulates the function of natural killer cells in different experimental settings. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:4727–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Chan MJ, Chung T, Glassford NJ, Bellomo R. Near-infrared spectroscopy in adult cardiac surgery patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2017;31:1155–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Chaturvedi S, Lipszyc DH, Licht C, Craig JC, Parekh R. Pharmacological interventions for hypertension in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014a;2:Cd008117.Google Scholar
  31. Chaturvedi S, Lipszyc DH, Licht C, Craig JC, Parekh R. Pharmacological interventions for hypertension in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014b;9:498–580.Google Scholar
  32. Chierchia S, Davies G, Berkenboom G, Crea F, Crean P, Maseri A. Alpha-adrenergic receptors and coronary spasm: an elusive link. Circulation. 1984;69:8–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Chong LYZ, Satya K, Kim B, Berkowitz R. Milrinone dosing and a culture of caution in clinical practice. Cardiol Rev. 2018;26(1):35–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Choong K, Kissoon N. Vasopressin in pediatric shock and cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9:372–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Chu PY, Campbell MJ, Miller SG, Hill KD. Anti-hypertensive drugs in children and adolescents. World J Cardiol. 2014;6:234–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. CID=681 NCfBIPCD. 2016. Dopamine.Google Scholar
  37. Clutter WE, Bier DM, Shah SD, Cryer PE. Epinephrine plasma metabolic clearance rates and physiologic thresholds for metabolic and hemodynamic actions in man. J Clin Invest. 1980;66:94–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cooper BE. Review and update on inotropes and vasopressors. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2008;19:5–13; quiz 14–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Costello JM, Graham DA, Morrow DF, Morrow J, Potter-Bynoe G, Sandora TJ, Pigula FA, Laussen PC. Risk factors for surgical site infection after cardiac surgery in children. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:1833–41; discussion 1841–1832.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Cruickshank JM. The role of beta-blockers in the treatment of hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;956:149–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Cuthbert AW. Lubiprostone targets prostanoid EP(4) receptors in ovine airways. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:508–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dabbagh A. Cardiac physiology. In: Dabbagh A, Esmailian F, Aranki S, editors. Postoperative critical care for cardiac surgical patients. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2014. p. 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dabbagh A, Talebi Z, Rajaei S. Cardiovascular pharmacology i heart disease. In: Dabbagh A, Conte AH, Lubin L, editors. Congenital heart disease in pediatric and adult patients: anesthetic and perioperative management. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2017a. p. 117–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dabbagh A, Imani A, Rajaei S. Pediatric cardiovascular physiology. In: Dabbagh A, Conte AH, Lubin L, editors. Congenital heart disease in pediatric and adult patients: anesthetic and perioperative management. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2017b. p. 65–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. De Backer D, Biston P, Devriendt J, Madl C, Chochrad D, Aldecoa C, Brasseur A, Defrance P, Gottignies P, Vincent JL. Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:779–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. de Caen AR, Berg MD, Chameides L, Gooden CK, Hickey RW, Scott HF, Sutton RM, Tijssen JA, Topjian A, van der Jagt EW, Schexnayder SM, Samson RA. Part 12: pediatric advanced life support: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132:S526–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Degrauwe S, Pilgrim T, Aminian A, Noble S, Meier P, Iglesias JF. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Open Heart. 2017;4:e000651.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Desborough MJ, Oakland K, Brierley C, Bennett S, Doree C, Trivella M, Hopewell S, Stanworth SJ, Estcourt LJ. Desmopressin use for minimising perioperative blood transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:Cd001884.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Dhull RS, Baracco R, Jain A, Mattoo TK. Pharmacologic treatment of pediatric hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2016;18:32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Dixon BS, Beck GJ, Vazquez MA, Greenberg A, Delmez JA, Allon M, Dember LM, Himmelfarb J, Gassman JJ, Greene T, Radeva MK, Davidson IJ, Ikizler TA, Braden GL, Fenves AZ, Kaufman JS, Cotton JR Jr, Martin KJ, McNeil JW, Rahman A, Lawson JH, Whiting JF, Hu B, Meyers CM, Kusek JW, Feldman HI. Effect of dipyridamole plus aspirin on hemodialysis graft patency. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2191–201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dodgen AL, Hill KD. Safety and tolerability considerations in the use of sildenafil for children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2015;7:175–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Driscoll A, Currey J, Tonkin A, Krum H. Nurse-led titration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, and angiotensin receptor blockers for people with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;12:Cd009889.Google Scholar
  53. Duman E, Karakoc F, Pinar HU, Dogan R, Firat A, Yildirim E. Higher dose intra-arterial milrinone and intra-arterial combined milrinone-nimodipine infusion as a rescue therapy for refractory cerebral vasospasm. Interv Neuroradiol. 2017;23(6):636–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Eaton MP. Antifibrinolytic therapy in surgery for congenital heart disease. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1087–100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Eftekhar-Vaghefi S, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Elyasi L, Abbasnejad M. Involvement of mu opioid receptor signaling in the protective effect of opioid against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells apoptosis. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2015;6:171–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ehlert A, Manthei G, Hesselmann V, Mathias K, Bein B, Pluta R. A case of hyperacute onset of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm treated with intravenous and intraventricular nitric oxide: a mini review. World Neurosurg. 2016;91:673.e611–8.e611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES. The sympathetic nerve—an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system. Pharmacol Rev. 2000;52:595–638.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Faraoni D, Goobie SM. The efficacy of antifibrinolytic drugs in children undergoing noncardiac surgery: a systematic review of the literature. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:628–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Feng AY, Kaye AD, Kaye RJ, Belani K, Urman RD. Novel propofol derivatives and implications for anesthesia practice. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2017;33:9–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ferrer-Barba A, Gonzalez-Rivera I, Bautista-Hernandez V. Inodilators in the management of low cardiac output syndrome after pediatric cardiac surgery. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2016;14:48–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Fleming GA, Murray KT, Yu C, Byrne JG, Greelish JP, Petracek MR, Hoff SJ, Ball SK, Brown NJ, Pretorius M. Milrinone use is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2008;118:1619–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Flynn JT. Management of hypertension in the young: role of antihypertensive medications. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;58:111–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Flynn JT, Bradford MC, Harvey EM. Intravenous hydralazine in hospitalized children and adolescents with hypertension. J Pediatr. 2016;168:88–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Franz D, Contreras F, Gonzalez H, Prado C, Elgueta D, Figueroa C, Pacheco R. Dopamine receptors D3 and D5 regulate CD4(+)T-cell activation and differentiation by modulating ERK activation and cAMP production. J Neuroimmunol. 2015;284:18–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Friederich JA, Butterworth JF. Sodium nitroprusside: twenty years and counting. Anesth Analg. 1995;81:152–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Friesen RH, Williams GD. Anesthetic management of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18:208–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Fuchs C, Ertmer C, Rehberg S. Effects of vasodilators on haemodynamic coherence. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2016;30:479–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Galante D. Intraoperative management of pulmonary arterial hypertension in infants and children—corrected and republished article. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:468–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Gamidov SI, Ovchinnikov RI, Popova AY, Izhbaev SK. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: past, present and future. Urologiia. 2017;1:103–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gao Y, Raj JU. Regulation of the pulmonary circulation in the fetus and newborn. Physiol Rev. 2010;90:1291–335.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Garcia-Rivas G, Jerjes-Sanchez C, Rodriguez D, Garcia-Pelaez J, Trevino V. A systematic review of genetic mutations in pulmonary arterial hypertension. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18:82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gaudino M, Antoniades C, Benedetto U, Deb S, Di Franco A, Di Giammarco G, Fremes S, Glineur D, Grau J, He GW, Marinelli D, Ohmes LB, Patrono C, Puskas J, Tranbaugh R, Girardi LN, Taggart DP. Mechanisms, consequences, and prevention of coronary graft failure. Circulation. 2017;136:1749–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Gavra P, Laflamme M, Denault AY, Theoret Y, Perrault LP, Varin F. Use of nebulized milrinone in cardiac surgery; comparison of vibrating mesh and simple jet nebulizers. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2017;46:20–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Giesinger RE, More K, Odame J, Jain A, Jankov RP, McNamara PJ. Controversies in the identification and management of acute pulmonary hypertension in preterm neonates. Pediatr Res. 2017;82(6):901–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Giglia TM, Witmer C, Procaccini DE, Byrnes JW. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care anticoagulation and thrombolysis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S77–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Gist KM, Goldstein SL, Joy MS, Vinks AA. Milrinone dosing issues in critically ill children with kidney injury: a review. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2016;67:175–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Glund S, Moschetti V, Norris S, Stangier J, Schmohl M, van Ryn J, Lang B, Ramael S, Reilly P. A randomised study in healthy volunteers to investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of idarucizumab, a specific antidote to dabigatran. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:943–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Gordon NK, Gordon R. The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter. Theor Biol Med Model. 2016;13:35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Green JB, Hart B, Cornett EM, Kaye AD, Salehi A, Fox CJ. Pulmonary vasodilators and anesthesia considerations. Anesthesiol Clin. 2017;35:221–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Gresele P, Momi S, Falcinelli E. Anti-platelet therapy: phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;72:634–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Griffin MR. Epidemiology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastrointestinal injury. Am J Med. 1998;104:23S–9S; discussion 41S–42S.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Hamzaoui O, Scheeren TWL, Teboul JL. Norepinephrine in septic shock: when and how much? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2017;23:342–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Hansmann G, Apitz C, Abdul-Khaliq H, Alastalo TP, Beerbaum P, Bonnet D, Dubowy KO, Gorenflo M, Hager A, Hilgendorff A, Kaestner M, Koestenberger M, Koskenvuo JW, Kozlik-Feldmann R, Kuehne T, Lammers AE, Latus H, Michel-Behnke I, Miera O, Moledina S, Muthurangu V, Pattathu J, Schranz D, Warnecke G, Zartner P. Executive summary. Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric pulmonary vascular disease network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK. Heart. 2016;102(Suppl 2):ii86–ii100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Hari P, Sinha A. Hypertensive emergencies in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78:569–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Herrera AJ, Espinosa-Oliva AM, Carrillo-Jimenez A, Oliva-Martin MJ, Garcia-Revilla J, Garcia-Quintanilla A, de Pablos RM, Venero JL. Relevance of chronic stress and the two faces of microglia in Parkinson’s disease. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:312.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Herzog-Niescery J, Seipp HM, Weber TP, Bellgardt M. Inhaled anesthetic agent sedation in the ICU and trace gas concentrations: a review. J Clin Monit Comput. 2017.
  87. Holmes CL. Vasoactive drugs in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11:413–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Holmes CL, Landry DW, Granton JT. Science review: vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 1—receptor physiology. Crit Care. 2003;7:427–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Holmes CL, Landry DW, Granton JT. Science review: vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 2—clinical physiology. Crit Care. 2004;8:15–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Hottinger DG, Beebe DS, Kozhimannil T, Prielipp RC, Belani KG. Sodium nitroprusside in 2014: a clinical concepts review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2014;30:462–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hummel J, Rucker G, Stiller B. Prophylactic levosimendan for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017a;8:Cd011312.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Hummel J, Rucker G, Stiller B. Prophylactic levosimendan for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017b;3:Cd011312.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Iarussi T, Marolla A, Pardolesi A, Patea RL, Camplese P, Sacco R. Sternectomy and sternum reconstruction for infection after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:1680–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Janssen PWA, Claassens DMF, Willemsen LM, Bergmeijer TO, Klein P, Ten Berg JM. Perioperative management of antiplatelet treatment in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in Dutch cardiothoracic centres. Neth Hear J. 2017;25(9):482–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jentzer JC, Coons JC, Link CB, Schmidhofer M. Pharmacotherapy update on the use of vasopressors and inotropes in the intensive care unit. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2015;20:249–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Jentzer JC, Mathier MA. Pulmonary hypertension in the intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med. 2016;31(6):369–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Jiang M, Karasawa T, Steyger PS. Aminoglycoside-induced cochleotoxicity: a review. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:308.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jortveit J, Leirgul E, Eskedal L, Greve G, Fomina T, Dohlen G, Tell GS, Birkeland S, Oyen N, Holmstrom H. Mortality and complications in 3495 children with isolated ventricular septal defects. Arch Dis Child. 2016;101(9):808–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Kee VR. Hemodynamic pharmacology of intravenous vasopressors. Crit Care Nurse. 2003;23:79–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Kelly LE, Ohlsson A, Shah PS. Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:Cd005494.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Khan SU, Winnicka L, Saleem MA, Rahman H, Rehman N. Amiodarone, lidocaine, magnesium or placebo in shock refractory ventricular arrhythmia: a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Heart Lung. 2017;46:417–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Kim JS, McSweeney J, Lee J, Ivy D. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S89–s100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, Samson RA, Hazinski MF, Atkins DL, Berg MD, de Caen AR, Fink EL, Freid EB, Hickey RW, Marino BS, Nadkarni VM, Proctor LT, Qureshi FA, Sartorelli K, Topjian A, van der Jagt EW, Zaritsky AL. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S876–908.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Klinger JR, Kadowitz PJ. The nitric oxide pathway in pulmonary vascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:S71–s79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Klugman D, Goswami ES, Berger JT. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care antihypertensives. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S101–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Knight WE, Yan C. Cardiac cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: function, regulation, and therapeutic prospects. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:766–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kniotek M, Boguska A. Sildenafil can affect innate and adaptive immune system in both experimental animals and patients. J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:4541958.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kozlik-Feldmann R, Hansmann G, Bonnet D, Schranz D, Apitz C, Michel-Behnke I. Pulmonary hypertension in children with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD, PPHVD-CHD). Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK. Heart. 2016;102(Suppl 2):ii42–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Kushwah S, Kumar A, Sahana KS. Levosimendan. A promising future drug for refractory cardiac failure in children? Indian Heart J. 2016;68(Suppl 1):S57–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Lai MY, Chu SM, Lakshminrusimha S, Lin HC. Beyond the inhaled nitric oxide in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatr Neonatol. 2017.
  111. Lakshminrusimha S, Mathew B, Leach CL. Pharmacologic strategies in neonatal pulmonary hypertension other than nitric oxide. Semin Perinatol. 2016;40:160–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai G, Greco M, Greco T, Bignami E, Morelli A, Guarracino F, Zangrillo A. Effects of levosimendan on mortality and hospitalization. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:634–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Langford RM, Mehta V. Selective cyclooxygenase inhibition: its role in pain and anaesthesia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60:323–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Latorre R, Castillo K, Carrasquel-Ursulaez W, Sepulveda RV, Gonzalez-Nilo F, Gonzalez C, Alvarez O. Molecular determinants of BK channel functional diversity and functioning. Physiol Rev. 2017;97:39–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Latus H, Delhaas T, Schranz D, Apitz C. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015;12:244–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Latus H, Kuehne T, Beerbaum P, Apitz C, Hansmann G, Muthurangu V, Moledina S. Cardiac MR and CT imaging in children with suspected or confirmed pulmonary hypertension/pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease. Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK. Heart. 2016;102(Suppl 2):ii30–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Lechner E, Hofer A, Leitner-Peneder G, Freynschlag R, Mair R, Weinzettel R, Rehak P, Gombotz H. Levosimendan versus milrinone in neonates and infants after corrective open-heart surgery: a pilot study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13:542–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leone M, Martin C. Role of terlipressin in the treatment of infants and neonates with catecholamine-resistant septic shock. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2008;22:323–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Lepelletier D, Perron S, Bizouarn P, Caillon J, Drugeon H, Michaud JL, Duveau D. Surgical-site infection after cardiac surgery: incidence, microbiology, and risk factors. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26:466–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Levite M. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Acta Physiol (Oxford). 2016;216:42–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Li H, Kim HW, Shin SE, Seo MS, An JR, Ha KS, Han ET, Hong SH, Firth AL, Choi IW, Han IY, Lee DS, Yim MJ, Park WS. The vasorelaxant effect of mitiglinide via activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels and SERCA pump in aortic smooth muscle. Life Sci. 2017a;188:1–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Li J, Tang B, Zhang W, Wang C, Yang S, Zhang B, Gao X. Relationship and mechanism of Kv2.1 expression to ADH secretion in rats with heart failure. Am J Transl Res. 2017b;9:3687–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Li MX, Hwang PM. Structure and function of cardiac troponin C (TNNC1): implications for heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and troponin modulating drugs. Gene. 2015;571:153–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Liu C, Chen J, Gao Y, Deng B, Liu K. Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:Cd004434.Google Scholar
  125. Lomis N, Gaudreault F, Malhotra M, Westfall S, Shum-Tim D, Prakash S. A novel milrinone nanoformulation for use in cardiovascular diseases: preparation and in vitro characterization. Mol Pharm. 2017;Google Scholar
  126. Lucas SS, Nasr VG, Ng AJ, Joe C, Bond M, DiNardo JA. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care: sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S3–s15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Maconochie IK, de Caen AR, Aickin R, Atkins DL, Biarent D, Guerguerian AM, Kleinman ME, Kloeck DA, Meaney PA, Nadkarni VM, Ng KC, Nuthall G, Reis AG, Shimizu N, Tibballs J, Pintos RV. Part 6: pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation. 2015;95:e147–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Majure DT, Greco T, Greco M, Ponschab M, Biondi-Zoccai G, Zangrillo A, Landoni G. Meta-analysis of randomized trials of effect of milrinone on mortality in cardiac surgery: an update. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:220–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Maldifassi MC, Baur R, Sigel E. Functional sites involved in modulation of the GABA receptor channel by the intravenous anesthetics propofol, etomidate and pentobarbital. Neuropharmacology. 2016;105:207–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Marcotti W, Johnson SL, Kros CJ. A transiently expressed SK current sustains and modulates action potential activity in immature mouse inner hair cells. J Physiol. 2004;560:691–708.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Marionneau C, Abriel H. Regulation of the cardiac Na channel Na1.5 by post-translational modifications. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;82:36–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Maslov MY, Wei AE, Pezone MJ, Edelman ER, Lovich MA. Vascular dilation, tachycardia, and increased inotropy occur sequentially with increasing epinephrine dose rate, plasma and myocardial concentrations, and cAMP. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;24:912–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mauri L, Kereiakes DJ, Yeh RW, Driscoll-Shempp P, Cutlip DE, Steg PG, Normand SL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD, Cohen DJ, Holmes DR Jr, Krucoff MW, Hermiller J, Dauerman HL, Simon DI, Kandzari DE, Garratt KN, Lee DP, Pow TK, Ver Lee P, Rinaldi MJ, Massaro JM. Twelve or 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stents. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2155–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. McCammond AN, Axelrod DM, Bailly DK, Ramsey EZ, Costello JM. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care fluid management. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S35–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. McMahon TJ, Bryan NS. Biomarkers in pulmonary vascular disease: gauging response to therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:S89–s95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Mebazaa A, Nieminen MS, Packer M, Cohen-Solal A, Kleber FX, Pocock SJ, Thakkar R, Padley RJ, Poder P, Kivikko M. Levosimendan vs dobutamine for patients with acute decompensated heart failure: the SURVIVE randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:1883–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Mehta PA, Cunningham CK, Colella CB, Alferis G, Weiner LB. Risk factors for sternal wound and other infections in pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:1000–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Mehta S, Granton J, Gordon AC, Cook DJ, Lapinsky S, Newton G, Bandayrel K, Little A, Siau C, Ayers D, Singer J, Lee TC, Walley KR, Storms M, Cooper DJ, Holmes CL, Hebert P, Presneill J, Russell JA. Cardiac ischemia in patients with septic shock randomized to vasopressin or norepinephrine. Crit Care. 2013;17:R117.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Meyer S, Gortner L, McGuire W, Baghai A, Gottschling S. Vasopressin in catecholamine-refractory shock in children. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:228–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Meyer S, McGuire W, Gottschling S, Mohammed Shamdeen G, Gortner L. The role of vasopressin and terlipressin in catecholamine-resistant shock and cardio-circulatory arrest in children: review of the literature. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2011;161:192–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Minton J, Sidebotham DA. Hyperlactatemia and cardiac surgery. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2017;49:7–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Mirhosseini SM, Sanjari Moghaddam A, Tahmaseb Pour P, Dabbagh A. Refractory vasoplegic syndrome in an adult patient with infective endocarditis: a case report and literature review. J Tehran Heart Cent. 2017;12:27–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Moffett BS, Price JF. Evaluation of sodium nitroprusside toxicity in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:1600–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Moffett BS, Salvin JW, Kim JJ. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care antiarrhythmics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S49–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Mossad E, Motta P, Sehmbey K, Toscana D. The hemodynamic effects of phenoxybenzamine in neonates, infants, and children. J Clin Anesth. 2008;20:94–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Mossad EB. Pro: intraoperative use of nitric oxide for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with congenital heart disease is effective. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:259–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Mossad EB, Motta P, Rossano J, Hale B, Morales DL. Perioperative management of pediatric patients on mechanical cardiac support. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21:585–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Motta P, Mossad E, Toscana D, Zestos M, Mee R. Comparison of phenoxybenzamine to sodium nitroprusside in infants undergoing surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005;19:54–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Motyl KJ, Beauchemin M, Barlow D, Le PT, Nagano K, Treyball A, Contractor A, Baron R, Rosen CJ, Houseknecht KL. A novel role for dopamine signaling in the pathogenesis of bone loss from the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone in female mice. Bone. 2017;103:168–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Nanayakkara S, Bergin P, Mak V, Crannitch K, Kaye DM. Extended release oral milrinone as an adjunct to heart failure therapy. Intern Med J. 2017;47:973–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Nateghian A, Taylor G, Robinson JL. Risk factors for surgical site infections following open-heart surgery in a Canadian pediatric population. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32:397–401.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Nazir SA, Khan JN, Mahmoud IZ, Greenwood JP, Blackman DJ, Kunadian V, Been M, Abrams KR, Wilcox R, Adgey AAJ, McCann GP, Gershlick AH. Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation. In: The REFLO-STEMI (REperfusion Facilitated by LOcal adjunctive therapy in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) trial: a randomised controlled trial comparing intracoronary administration of adenosine or sodium nitroprusside with control for attenuation of microvascular obstruction during primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright (c) Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2016. This work was produced by Nazir et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK; 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ng KT, Yap JLL. Continuous infusion vs. intermittent bolus injection of furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Anaesthesia. 2018;73(2):238–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Nieminen MS, Fruhwald S, Heunks LM, Suominen PK, Gordon AC, Kivikko M, Pollesello P. Levosimendan: current data, clinical use and future development. Heart Lung Vess. 2013;5:227–45.Google Scholar
  155. Noori S, Seri I. Neonatal blood pressure support: the use of inotropes, lusitropes, and other vasopressor agents. Clin Perinatol. 2012;39:221–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. O’Brien A, Clapp L, Singer M. Terlipressin for norepinephrine-resistant septic shock. Lancet. 2002;359:1209–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Ogawa R, Stachnik JM, Echizen H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with heart failure: an update (part 2, drugs administered orally). Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014;53:1083–114.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Ostrye J, Hailpern SM, Jones J, Egan B, Chessman K, Shatat IF. The efficacy and safety of intravenous hydralazine for the treatment of hypertension in the hospitalized child. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29:1403–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Pacheco R, Contreras F, Zouali M. The dopaminergic system in autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol. 2014;5:117.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Panchal AR, Satyanarayan A, Bahadir JD, Hays D, Mosier J. Efficacy of bolus-dose phenylephrine for peri-intubation hypotension. J Emerg Med. 2015;49:488–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Papp Z, Edes I, Fruhwald S, De Hert SG, Salmenpera M, Leppikangas H, Mebazaa A, Landoni G, Grossini E, Caimmi P, Morelli A, Guarracino F, Schwinger RH, Meyer S, Algotsson L, Wikstrom BG, Jorgensen K, Filippatos G, Parissis JT, Gonzalez MJ, Parkhomenko A, Yilmaz MB, Kivikko M, Pollesello P, Follath F. Levosimendan: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications: consensus of experts on the mechanisms of action of levosimendan. Int J Cardiol. 2012;159:82–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Parham WA, Mehdirad AA, Biermann KM, Fredman CS. Hyperkalemia revisited. Tex Heart Inst J. 2006;33:40–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Parthenakis F, Maragkoudakis S, Marketou M, Patrianakos A, Zacharis E, Vardas P. Myocardial inotropic reserve: an old twist that constitutes a reliable index in the modern era of heart failure. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2016;57:311–4.Google Scholar
  164. Perez KM, Laughon M. Sildenafil in term and premature infants: a systematic review. Clin Ther. 2015;37:2598.e2591–607.e2591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pinoli M, Marino F, Cosentino M. Dopaminergic regulation of innate immunity: a review. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2017;12(4):602–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Pollack CV Jr, Reilly PA, Eikelboom J, Glund S, Verhamme P, Bernstein RA, Dubiel R, Huisman MV, Hylek EM, Kamphuisen PW, Kreuzer J, Levy JH, Sellke FW, Stangier J, Steiner T, Wang B, Kam CW, Weitz JI. Idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:511–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Poor HD, Ventetuolo CE. Pulmonary hypertension in the intensive care unit. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;55:187–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Prado C, Bernales S, Pacheco R. Modulation of T-cell mediated immunity by dopamine receptor d5. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2013;13:184–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Pritts CD, Pearl RG. Anesthesia for patients with pulmonary hypertension. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23:411–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Reveiz L, Guerrero-Lozano R, Camacho A, Yara L, Mosquera PA. Stress ulcer, gastritis, and gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis in critically ill pediatric patients: a systematic review. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11:124–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Rizza A, Bignami E, Belletti A, Polito A, Ricci Z, Isgro G, Locatelli A, Cogo P. Vasoactive drugs and hemodynamic monitoring in pediatric cardiac intensive care: an italian survey. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2016;7:25–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Roeleveld PP, Zwijsen EG. Treatment strategies for paradoxical hypertension following surgical correction of coarctation of the aorta in children. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2017;8:321–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Romantsik O, Calevo MG, Norman E, Bruschettini M. Clonidine for sedation and analgesia for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;5:Cd012468.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Rossano JW, Cabrera AG, Jefferies JL, Naim MP, Humlicek T. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care chronic heart failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S20–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Russell JA. Bench-to-bedside review: vasopressin in the management of septic shock. Crit Care. 2011;15:226.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Ryu HG, Jung CW, Lee HC, Cho YJ. Epinephrine and phenylephrine pretreatments for preventing postreperfusion syndrome during adult liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2012;18:1430–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Salem S, Askandar S, Khouzam RN. Aspirin monotherapy vs. dual antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): where do we stand? Ann Transl Med. 2017;5:213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Scanzano A, Cosentino M. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review. Front Pharmacol. 2015;6:171.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Schouten ES, van de Pol AC, Schouten AN, Turner NM, Jansen NJ, Bollen CW. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10:182–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Shah PS, Ohlsson A. Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;8:Cd005494.Google Scholar
  181. Shang G, Yang X, Song D, Ti Y, Shang Y, Wang Z, Tang M, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Zhong M. Effects of levosimendan on patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2017;17(6):453–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Shao H, Li CS. Epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: helpful or harmful? Chin Med J. 2017;130:2112–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sharawy N. Vasoplegia in septic shock: do we really fight the right enemy? J Crit Care. 2014;29:83–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Silvetti S, Silvani P, Azzolini ML, Dossi R, Landoni G, Zangrillo A. A systematic review on levosimendan in paediatric patients. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2015;13:128–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Simons FE, Sampson HA. Anaphylaxis: unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:1125–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Singh VK, Sharma R, Agrawal A, Varma A. Vasopressin in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit: myth or reality. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2009;2:65–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Smith KA, Ayon RJ, Tang H, Makino A, Yuan JX. Calcium-sensing receptor regulates cytosolic [Ca 2+] and plays a major role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Front Physiol. 2016;7:517.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Stahl W, Bracht H, Radermacher P, Thomas J. Year in review 2009: critical care—shock. Crit Care. 2010;14:239.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Stratton L, Berlin DA, Arbo JE. Vasopressors and inotropes in sepsis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35:75–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Strobel AM, Lu le N. The critically ill infant with congenital heart disease. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2015;33:501–18.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Thomas C, Svehla L, Moffett BS. Sodium-nitroprusside-induced cyanide toxicity in pediatric patients. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2009;8:599–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Touchan J, Guglin M. Temporary mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2017;19:77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Tran KC, Leung AA, Tang KL, Quan H, Khan NA. Efficacy of calcium channel blockers on major cardiovascular outcomes for the treatment of hypertension in asian populations: a meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol. 2017;33:635–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Trappe HJ, Brandts B, Weismueller P. Arrhythmias in the intensive care patient. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2003;9:345–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Tremblay JA, Beaubien-Souligny W, Elmi-Sarabi M, Desjardins G, Denault AY. Point-of-care ultrasonography to assess portal vein pulsatility and the effect of inhaled milrinone and epoprostenol in severe right ventricular failure: a report of 2 cases. A A Case Rep. 2017;9:219–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Twite MD, Friesen RH. The anesthetic management of children with pulmonary hypertension in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Anesthesiol Clin. 2014;32:157–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Unegbu C, Noje C, Coulson JD, Segal JB, Romer L. Pulmonary hypertension therapy and a systematic review of efficacy and safety of PDE-5 inhibitors. Pediatrics. 2017;139(3):e20161450.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Varon J, Marik PE. Clinical review: the management of hypertensive crises. Crit Care. 2003;7:374–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Vasu TS, Cavallazzi R, Hirani A, Kaplan G, Leiby B, Marik PE. Norepinephrine or dopamine for septic shock: systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Intensive Care Med. 2012;27:172–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. Vaughan Williams EM. Relevance of cellular to clinical electrophysiology in interpreting antiarrhythmic drug action. Am J Cardiol. 1989;64:5j–9j.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Vaughan Williams EM. The relevance of cellular to clinical electrophysiology in classifying antiarrhythmic actions. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1992;20(Suppl 2):S1–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Ventetuolo CE, Klinger JR. Management of acute right ventricular failure in the intensive care unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:811–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Verghese ST, Hannallah RS. Acute pain management in children. J Pain Res. 2010;3:105–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Vijarnsorn C, Winijkul G, Laohaprasitiporn D, Chungsomprasong P, Chanthong P, Durongpisitkul K, Soonswang J, Nana A, Subtaweesin T, Sriyoschati S, Pooliam J. Postoperative fever and major infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. J Med Assoc Thail. 2012;95:761–70.Google Scholar
  205. Vorhies EE, Ivy DD. Drug treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children. Paediatr Drugs. 2014;16:43–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wang A. Review of vorapaxar for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16:2509–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Wang RC, Jiang FM, Zheng QL, Li CT, Peng XY, He CY, Luo J, Liang ZA. Efficacy and safety of sildenafil treatment in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Respir Med. 2014;108:531–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Watt K, Li JS, Benjamin DK Jr, Cohen-Wolkowiez M. Pediatric cardiovascular drug dosing in critically ill children and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;58:126–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wolf CM, Berul CI. Molecular mechanisms of inherited arrhythmias. Curr Genomics. 2008;9:160–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Xue H, Lu Z, Tang WL, Pang LW, Wang GM, Wong GW, Wright JM. First-line drugs inhibiting the renin angiotensin system versus other first-line antihypertensive drug classes for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:Cd008170.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. Yandrapalli S, Tariq S, Aronow WS. Advances in chemical pharmacotherapy for managing acute decompensated heart failure. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2017;18:471–85.Google Scholar
  212. Yerokun BA, Williams JB, Gaca J, Smith PK, Roe MT. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Coron Artery Dis. 2016;27:319–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yildirim A, Lubbers HT, Yildirim A. Drug-induced anaphylaxis. Adrenalin as emergency drug in anaphylaxis. Swiss Dent J. 2017;127:242–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Zhang Q, Liu B, Zhao L, Qi Z, Shao H, An L, Li C. Efficacy of vasopressin-epinephrine compared to epinephrine alone for out of hospital cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2017a;35:1555–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Zhang X, Liu Q, Liao Q, Zhao Y. Potential roles of peripheral dopamine in tumor immunity. J Cancer. 2017b;8:2966–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Zhao W, Huang Y, Liu Z, Cao BB, Peng YP, Qiu YH. Dopamine receptors modulate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. PLoS One. 2013;8:e65860.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M, Buxton AE, Chaitman B, Fromer M, Gregoratos G, Klein G, Moss AJ, Myerburg RJ, Priori SG, Quinones MA, Roden DM, Silka MJ, Tracy C, Smith SC Jr, Jacobs AK, Adams CD, Antman EM, Anderson JL, Hunt SA, Halperin JL, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Camm AJ, Dean V, Deckers JW, Despres C, Dickstein K, Lekakis J, McGregor K, Metra M, Morais J, Osterspey A, Tamargo JL, Zamorano JL. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:e247–346.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. Zou Z, Yuan HB, Yang B, Xu F, Chen XY, Liu GJ, Shi XY. Perioperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers for preventing mortality and morbidity in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;1:Cd009210.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Dabbagh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ardeshir Tajbakhsh
    • 3
  • Zahra Talebi
    • 4
  • Samira Rajaei
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Cardiac Anesthesiology Department, Anesthesiology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Cardiac Anesthesiology Fellowship ProgramShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Anesthesiology Department, Anesthesiology Research Center, Faculty of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Anesthesiology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Immunology, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations