Healthy Dietary Pattern for the Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

  • Reema F. Tayyem
Chapter

Abstract

In colorectal cancer (CRC) disease, several well-known dietary and non-dietary risk factors have been involved in its development. Some of those factors are high consumption of red meat and processed meat; low fiber intake; alcohol drinking; obesity; and a sedentary lifestyle [1]. Additionally, genetic susceptibility [2], tobacco smoking [3], and exposure to environmental carcinogens were found to promote proliferation and malignant transformation of CRC cells [4]. Several studies have focused on the effects of a single food item or a nutrient on lowering risk of CRC incidence [5]. However, the association of a single food item or food group with the risk of developing CRC may not be valid because of the presumption that each single food item or nutrient has an isolated effect [6]. A dietary pattern in food choice is defined as a combination of the dietary components (food items, food groups, nutrients, or both) used to summarize elements of the total diet or the major features of the food choices for the population under study [7]. The descriptive summary of the dietary pattern has been used in nutritional epidemiology to explain and assess the overall dietary experience, by suggesting that the synergistic effects of the variety of dietary and non-dietary factors can be used to explain the relationship between diet and health [8]. In general, there are two dietary patterns: “Healthy” and “Western.” The healthy dietary pattern is largely characterized by a greater intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains, and a lower intake of sweets, red meat, and processed meat; this dietary pattern is considered to be associated with lowering the risk of developing CRC. Alternatively, the Western dietary pattern, reported to contain more meat, highly processed food, potatoes, refined carbohydrates, and much lower in vegetables and dietary fiber, has been reported to increase the risk of developing CRC [7, 9].

References

  1. 1.
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research; 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heavy PM, McKenna D, Rowland IR. Colorectal cancer and the relationship between genes and the environment. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48:124–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ulrich CM, Bigler J, Whitton JA, Bostick R, Fosdick L, Potter JD. Epoxide hydrolase Tyr113His polymorphism is associated with elevated risk of colorectal polyps in the presence of smoking and high meat intake. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:875–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Irigaray P, Newby JA, Clapp R, Hardell L, Howard V, et al. Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61:640–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun Z, Zhu Y, Wang PP, Roebothan B, Zhao J, Dicks E, et al. Reported intake of selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ontario, Canada. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:687–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flood A, Rastogi T, Wirfalt E, Mitrou PN, Reedy J, Subar AF, et al. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:176–84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Randi G, Edefonti V, Ferraroni M, La Vecchia C, Decarli A. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:389–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Magalhaes B, Bastos J, Lunet N. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Portugal. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20:389–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Magalhaes B, Peleteiro B, Lunet N. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21:15–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen Z, Wang PP, Woodrow J, Zhu Y, Roebothan B, Mclaughlin JR, Parfrey PS. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study. Nutr J. 2015;15:14–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Makambi KH, Agurs-Collins T, Bright-Gbebry M, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Adams-Campbell LL. Dietarypatterns and the risk of colorectal adenomas: the Black Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(5):818–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Safari A, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, Rashidkhani B, Fereidooni F. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case-control study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stefani ED, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Ronco AL, Correa P, Boffetta P, Aune D, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M, Luaces ME, Lando G, Silva C. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(3):753–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giovannucci E. Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and colon cancer: a review of the evidence. J Nutr. 2001;131:3109S–20S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response metaanalysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011;343:d6617.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bamia C, Lagiou P, Buckland G, et al. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28:317–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, et al. International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working G. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16:1599–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan DS, Lau R, Aune D, et al. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies. PLoS One. 2011;6:e20456.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehta RS, Song M, Nishihara R, et al. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: analysis by tumor location and molecular subtypes. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:1944–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amine E, Baba N, Belhadj M, et al. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation: World Health Organization. 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knoops KT, de Groot LC, Kromhout D, et al. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly european men and women: the HALE project. JAMA. 2004;292:1433–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reedy J, Mitrou PN, Krebs-Smith SM, et al. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:38–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fung T, Hu FB, Fuchs C, Giovannucci E, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Major dietary patterns and the risk ofcolorectal cancer in women. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(3):309–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harshman MR, Aldoori W. Diet and colorectal cancer: review of the evidence. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53:1913–20.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tayyem RF, Shehadeh I, Abu-Mweis SS, Bawadi H, Bani-Hani K, Al-Jaberi T, Majed Alnusair HD. Fruit and vegetable intake among Jordanians: results from a case-control study of colorectal cancer. Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 2014;21(4):350–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Duijnhoven FJ, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Ferrari P, Jenab M, Boshuizen HC, Ros MM, et al. Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1441–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Azizi H, Asadollahi K, DavtalabEsmaeili E, Mirzapoor M. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer. Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(1):72–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Satia JA, Tseng M, Galanko JA, Martin C, Sandler RS. Dietary patterns and colon cancer risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):179–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Slattery ML, Boucher KM, Caan BJ, Potter JD, Ma KN. Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(1):4–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grosso G, Biondi A, Galvano F, et al. Factors associated with colorectal cancer in the context of the Mediterranean diet: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(4):558–65.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fung TT, Brown LS. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. Curr Nutr Rep. 2013;2(1):48–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ben Q, Wang L, Liu J, et al. Alcohol drinking and the risk of colorectal adenoma: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24:286–95.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Feng YL, Shu L, Zheng PF, et al. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017;26(3):201–11.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Park JY, Dahm CC, Keogh RH, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:747–56.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seitz HK, Stickel F. Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:599–612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Notarnicola M, Caruso MG, Tutino V, et al. Low red blood cell levels of deglycating enzymes in colorectal cancer patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(3):329–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Misciagna G, De Michele G, Guerra V, et al. Serum fructosamine and colorectal adenomas. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(5):425–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tayyem RF, Bawadi H, Shehadeh I, et al. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Clin Nutr. 2017;36:848–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stoneham M, Goldacre M, Seagroatt V, et al. Olive oil, diet and colorectal cancer: an ecological study and a hypothesis. J Epidemiol Commun Health. 2000;54:756–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Romaneiro S, Parekh N. Dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. Top Clin Nutr. 2012;27(1):41–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Plotnikoff G. Three measurable and modifiable enteric microbial biotransformations relevant to cancer prevention and treatment. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014;3(3):33–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Santarelli R, Pierre F, Corpet D. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):131–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sandhu MS, Dunger DB, Insulin GEL, et al. IGF-I, IGF binding proteins, their biologic interactions, and colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:972–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, et al. Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA. 2002;287:2081–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reema F. Tayyem
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Nutrition and Food TechnologyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations