Advertisement

Investigation of Diesel – n-Butanol Fuel Blend in the Function of Pre-injection Angle

  • Attila Dobai
  • Ákos Bereczky
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

The utilisation of renewable fuels and decreasing emission are important targets of the development and utilisation of compression-ignited and spark-ignited internal combustion engines. One solution can be the utilisation of different alcohols. With compression-ignited internal combustion engines, very often, ethanol and n-butanol are used for this purpose. The benefit of higher alcohols (C3–C4), like n-butanol, can be blended with diesel fuel without any surfactant or emulsifier. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the blend containing 10 V/V% n-butanol, and the pre-injection angle on engine performance, combustion, and emission. It is a three–cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine used for the tests.

While testing, it was observed that the fuel consumption of the blend was high compared to that of the D2 fuel. Butanol containing blend slightly showed peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate comparable to that of D2. Carbon monoxide (CO) unburned hydrocarbons (THC), and smoke emissions of the BU blend was lower in comparison to D2 fuel.

Keywords

Diesel engine n-butanol Combustion process 

Nomenclature

ABE:

Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol

BTDC:

Before top dead centre

CA:

Crank angle

CO:

Carbon monoxide

HCCI:

Homogeneous charge compression ignition

LHV:

Lower heating value

NOx:

Nitrogen oxides

O:

Oxygen

pi:

Indicated pressure

PPCI:

Partially premixed compression ignition

PRIA:

Pre-injection angle

ROHR:

Rate of heat release

TDC:

Top dead centre

THC:

Total hydrocarbons

References

  1. 1.
    Chen, Z., Liu, J., Han, Z., Du, B., Liu, Y., Lee, C.: Study on performance and emissions of a passenger-car diesel engine fueled with butanol–diesel blends. Energy 55, 638–646 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siwale, L., Kristóf, L., Adam, T., Bereczky, A., Mbarawa, M., Penninger, A.: Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel 107, 409–418 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zöldy, M.: Ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends as a diesel extender option on compression ignition engines. Transport 26, 303–309 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kwanchareon, P., Luengnaruemitchai, A., Jai-In, S.: Solubility of a diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blend, its fuel properties, and its emission characteristics from diesel engine. Fuel 86, 1053–1061 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yilmaz, N.: Comparative analysis of biodiesel–ethanol–diesel and biodiesel–methanol–diesel blends in a diesel engine. Energy 40, 210–213 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Žaglinskis, K. Lukacs, and A. Bereczky, ‘Comparison of properties of a compression ignition engine operating on diesel–biodiesel blend with methanol additive’, Fuel (170), (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qi, D.H., Chen, H., Geng, L.M., Bian, Y.Z., Ren, X.C.: Performance and combustion characteristics of biodiesel–diesel–methanol blend fuelled engine. Appl. Energy 87, 1679–1686 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Algayyim, S.J.M., Wandel, A.P., Yusaf, T., Hamawand, I.: Production and application of ABE as a biofuel. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 82, 1195–1214 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lapuerta, M., José Hernández, J., Fernández-Rodríguez, D., Cova, A.: Autoignition of blends of n-butanol and ethanol with diesel or biodiesel fuels in a constant-volume combustion chamber. Energy 118, 613–621 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doğan, O.: The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel 90, 2467–2472 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nayyar, A., Sharma, D., Soni, S.L., Mathur, A.: Characterization of n-butanol diesel blends on a small size variable compression ratio diesel engine: Modeling and experimental investigation. Energy Convers. Manag. 150, 242–258 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ismail, M.Y., Mohd, A., Mamat, R., Ali, O.: Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with n-butanol blends. J. Teknol. Sci. Eng. 77, 69–73 (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, Z., Wu, Z., Liu, J., Lee, C.: Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact. Energy Convers. Manag. 78, 787–795 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choi, B., Kim, Y.K., Jung, G., Lee, C., Jiang, X., Choi, I.: Effect of diesel fuel blend with biobutanol on the emission of turbocharged CRDI diesel engine. Energy Procedia 61, 2145–2148 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Şahin, Z., Aksu, O.N.: Experimental investigation of the effects of using low ratio n-butanol/diesel fuel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a turbocharged DI diesel engine. Renew. Energy 77, 279–290 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamani, V., Yadav, A.K., Gottekere, K.N.: Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 1–12 (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen, Y.J., Lou, D.M., Fan, X.X., Zhang, T., Fan, W.J.: Regulated emissions characteristics of a common rail diesel engine fueled with different n-butanol/diesel blends. Adv. Mater. Res. 848, 279–285 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zöldy, M., Török, Á.: Road transport liquid fuel today and tomorrow: literature overview. Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng. 43(4), 172–176 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, J., Hua, Y., Wang, Z., Xu, B., Zhu, L.: Simulation and verification on spray influence of butanol/diesel blends effected by injection pressure and backpressure. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 30(21), 47–54 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Swamy, R.L.: Impact of diesel-butanol blends on performance and emission of diesel engine. Oil Gas Res. 1, 101 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nayyar, A., Sharma, D., Lal Soni, S., Mathur, A.: Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24, 20315–20329 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nabi, M., Zare, A., Hossain, F.M., Bodisco, T.A., Ristovski, Z., Brown, R.: A parametric study on engine performance and emissions with neat diesel and diesel-butanol blends in the 13-Mode European Stationary Cycle. Energy Convers. Manag. 148, 251–259 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lapuerta, M., Hernández, J.J., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Barba, J., Ramos, A., Fernández-Rodríguez, D.: Emission benefits from the use of n-butanol blends in a Euro 6 diesel engine. Int. J. Engine Res. (2017)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Han, X., Yang, Z., Wang, M., Tjong, J., Zheng, M.: Clean combustion of n-butanol as a next generation biofuel for diesel engines. Appl. Energy 198, 347–359 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    AVL: AVL BOOST® VERSION 2011. Combustion and Emission module. AVL (2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Woschni, G.: A Universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine. SAE International, Warrendale, SAE Technical Paper 670931 (1967)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heywood, J.: Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill Education, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bereczky, Á.: Parameter analysis of NO emissions from spark ignition engines. Transport 27(1), 34–39 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy EngineeringBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations