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Targeting Redox Regulatory Mechanisms for Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crops

  • Mohsin Tanveer
  • Sergey Shabala
Chapter

Abstract

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that result in significant losses in agricultural crop production across the globe. Salinity stress results in osmotic stress, ionic stress, and oxidative stress; among these, oxidative stress is considered to be the most detrimental. Oxidative stress induces the production of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both intracellular and extracellular locations. Plants possess redox regulatory mechanisms by employing different enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to scavenge ROS. Different antioxidants have different tissue- and organelle-specific ROS-scavenging effects. However, the causal link between the amount of antioxidants and plant salinity stress tolerance is not as straightforward as one may assume, with controversial reports available in the literature. This chapter addresses those controversies and argues that there is a need for better understanding and development of tools for targeted regulation of plant redox systems in specific cellular compartments and tissues.

Keywords

Antioxidant defense system QTL Redox regulation ROS production Salt stress Tissue specific antioxidant activity 

Abbreviations

1O2

Singlet oxygen

AKR1

NADPH-dependent aldo-ketoreductase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

ASC

Ascorbic acid

BADH

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase

CAT

Catalase

codA

Choline dehydrogenase gene

DHA

Dehydroascorbic acid

DHAR

Dehydroascorbate reductase

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

L-ASC

L-Ascorbic acid

MAPK 1

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MDHA

Monodehydroascorbic acid

MDHAR

Monodehydroascorbate reductase

MeOOH

Methyl hydrogen peroxide

NADP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADPH

Reduced NADP

O2

Superoxide radical

OH

Hydroxyl radical

Orn-δ-OAT

Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase

P5CR

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

P5CS

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase

POD

Peroxidase

PSI

Photosystem I

PSII

Photosystem II

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

QTL

Quantitative trait locus

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Australian Research Council and Qatar National Science Foundation (NPRP-8-126-1-024) grants to Sergey Shabala.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Land and Food, University of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

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