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Plant Hormones: Potent Targets for Engineering Salinity Tolerance in Plants

  • Abdallah Atia
  • Zouhaier Barhoumi
  • Ahmed Debez
  • Safa Hkiri
  • Chedly Abdelly
  • Abderrazak Smaoui
  • Chiraz Chaffei Haouari
  • Houda Gouia
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change has intensified the frequency and severity of many abiotic stresses. Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting crop productivity worldwide. This leads to significant yield reductions, which have been reported in major cereal species such as wheat, maize, and barley. Meanwhile, the global human population is expected to rise above 9 billion by 2050. Average living standards are also increasing, with impacts on food consumption. Thus, there is an urgent need to further increase crop productivity. To meet these goals, it is imperative to develop new crops that have improved resistance to salt stress. Many plant scientists now believe that modern biotechnological approaches such as molecular breeding and genetic engineering offer the possibility to achieve these goals. Plant hormones play an important physiological role in regulating plant growth and development, and in coordinating plant responses to environmental conditions. These hormones—including abscisic acid, gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, brassinosteroids, and jasmonates—are very important for providing adaptive responses under salt stress. Plant hormones may prove to be important metabolic engineering targets for producing abiotic stress–tolerant crop plants. This chapter discusses the physiological roles of plant hormones in salinity responses and recent success in engineering plant hormones for salinity tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Abscisic acid Auxins Adaptive responses to salt stress Brassinosteroids Cytokinins Crop productivity Ethylene Gibberellins Genetic engineering Jasmonates Plant growth and development Plant hormones Soil salinity Salinity tolerance 

Abbreviations

12-OPDA

12-Oxo phytodienoic acid

13-HPOT

13-Hydroperoxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid

α-LeA

α-Linolenic acid

AAO

Abscisic acid–aldehyde oxidase

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACC

Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

ACO

Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase

ACS

Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AHK

Arabidopsis histidine kinases receptor

AHP

Histidine-containing phospho-transfer protein

AO

Allene oxide

AOC

Allene oxide cyclase

AOS

Allene oxide synthase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

ARR

Arabidopsis response regulator

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BIN2

Brassinosteroid-insensitive 2

BL

Brassinolide

BR

Brassinosteroid

BZR1

Brassinazole-resistant 1

CAT

Catalase

CK

Cytokinin

CKX

Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase

CRF

Cytokinin response factor

cZ

Cis-zeatin

EBR

24-Epibrassinolide (EBL)

ECe

Electrical conductivity of a saturated soil extract

ERF

Ethylene response factor

ET

ethylene

FMO

Flavin monooxygenase

GA

Gibberellin

HSD

11-b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid.

IAM

Indole-3-acetamide

IAOx

Indole-3-acetaldoxime

iPA

Isopentenyl adenine

IPA

Indole-3-pyruvic acid

IPP

Isopentyl diphosphate

IPT

Adenosine phosphate isopentenyl transferase

JA

Jasmonate/jasmonic acid

JA-ACC

Jasmonoyl aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

JA-Ile

Jasmonoyl isoleucine

LOX

13-Lipoxygenase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MCSU

Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

NCED

9-Cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase

NR

Nitrate reductase

RES

Reactive electrophile species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SA

Salicylic acid

S-AdoMet

S-adenosyl-methionine

SnRK2.4

Serine/threonine protein kinase gene

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAM

Tryptamine

tZ

Trans-zeatin

Z

Zeatin

ZEO

Zeaxanthin oxidase

ZEP

Zeaxanthin epoxidase

ZR

Zeatin riboside

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdallah Atia
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zouhaier Barhoumi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ahmed Debez
    • 3
  • Safa Hkiri
    • 2
  • Chedly Abdelly
    • 3
  • Abderrazak Smaoui
    • 3
  • Chiraz Chaffei Haouari
    • 2
  • Houda Gouia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of biology, College of scienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Research Unit, Nutrition and Nitrogen Metabolism and Stress Protein, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of TunisCampus Universitaire El Manar ITunisTunisia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Centre of Biotechnology of Borj-CedriaHammam-LifTunisia

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