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Strategies to Alleviate Salinity Stress in Plants

  • Sara Francisco Costa
  • Davide Martins
  • Monika Agacka-Mołdoch
  • Anna Czubacka
  • Susana de Sousa Araújo
Chapter

Abstract

Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semiarid regions. Besides the identification and use of salt-adapted species or cultivars in saline areas, the use of treatments to alleviate the effects of salinity stress is a promising solution to ensure crop production in such adverse conditions. Chemical, biological, and physical treatments are being successfully applied to seeds, seedlings, or plants before exposure to salinity stress. These treatments activate physiological and molecular pathways enabling the seed or plant to respond more quickly and/or more vigorously after exposure to salinity. Coupled to this, agricultural management practices have also contributed to mitigation of the effects of excessive salt accumulation in the soil. The acquired fundamental knowledge about how a plant reacts to high salt concentrations has been essential for the development of educated and applied strategies for salinity alleviation. In this chapter, we provide a general overview of the main strategies applied to alleviate salinity effects in plants, with a critical discussion of the main achievements described in this field.

Keywords

Abiotic stresses Alleviation strategies Biological treatments Chemical treatments Crops Field management practices Halopriming Ionizing radiation Magnetic field Osmopriming Physical treatments Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria Rhizospheric fungi Salinity 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

BABA

β-Aminobutyric acid

CaCl2

Calcium chloride

CAT

Catalase

CuSO4

Copper sulfate

EC

Electrical conductivity

EMF

Electromagnetic field

ET

Ethylene

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

GA3

Gibberellic acid

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

IAA

Indoleacetic acid

JA

Jasmonate

K+

Potassium

K3PO4

Tripotassium phosphate

KCl

Potassium chloride

KH2PO4

Monopotassium phosphate

KNO3

Potassium nitrate

KOH

Potassium hydroxide

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MF

Magnetic field

MgSO4

Magnesium sulfate

Na+

Sodium

NaCl

Sodium chloride

NCBI

National Center for Biotechnology Information

NO

Nitric oxide

NO3

Nitrate

n-Si

Nanosilicon particles

n-SiO2

Nanosilicon dioxide particles

O2

Superoxide radical

OH

Hydroxyl radical

P5CR

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

P5CS

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PGPB

Plant growth–promoting bacteria

PGPR

Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria

POX

Peroxidase

Put

Putrescine

QTL

Quantitative trait locus

RONSS

Reactive oxygen–nitrogen–sulfur species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SA

Salicylic acid

SMF

Static magnetic field

SNP

Sodium nitroprusside

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

Spd

Spermidine

Spm

Spermine

UV

Ultraviolet radiation

ZnSO4

Zinc sulfate

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Lisbon, Portugal) is acknowledged through the research unit “GREEN-it: Bioresources for Sustainability” (UID/Multi/04551/2013), a SSA postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/108032/2015), a DM Plants for Life PhD grant (PD/BD/128498/2017), and a SFC research fellowship in the scope of the FCT project (PTDC/AGR-PRO/4261/2014).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Francisco Costa
    • 1
  • Davide Martins
    • 2
  • Monika Agacka-Mołdoch
    • 3
  • Anna Czubacka
    • 3
  • Susana de Sousa Araújo
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Plant Cell Biotechnology Laboratory, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier (ITQB NOVA)OeirasPortugal
  2. 2.Genetics and Genomics of Plant Complex Traits Laboratory, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier (ITQB NOVA)OeirasPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Plant Breeding and BiotechnologyInstitute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation—State Research InstitutePuławyPoland
  4. 4.Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biology and Biotechnology ‘L. Spallanzani’Università degli Studi di PaviaPaviaItaly

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