3D Printed Models in Neurosurgical Training
Neurosurgical training has evolved over time. New technology has developed novel methods to supplement training. 3D printed models are an innovative method used to teach and train in various parts of neurosurgery. This chapter focuses on the variety of neurosurgical sub-specialties and how 3D printed models can be used. Cerebral aneurysms are a common pathology in neurosurgery that can be treated with surgical clipping of endovascular coiling. As endovascular technologies have advanced, resident exposure to clipping has diminished. The use of 3D models has supplemented this education. Tumor surgery in neurosurgery is challenging due to the various approaches and complex anatomy that must be mastered. 2D pictures are helpful, but converting this to three dimensions for surgery is difficult. The use of 3D models can really help with understanding anatomy. This is also helpful for transsphenoidal surgery and minor/bedside procedures. Spinal surgery can also be better understood with the use of 3D models. Various 3D models have been created to better understand the directions to place spinal instrumentation. As 3D printed models get more sophisticated, their use in neurosurgery as a training tool will grow. This chapter describes the various ways 3D printed models have impacted neurosurgical training.
Keywords3D printing Neurosurgery Cerebral aneurysms Transsphenoidal Skull base Endoscopic, Ventriculostomy, Spine
- 1.Hull CW, inventor; Google Patents, assignee. Method and apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography1996.Google Scholar
- 6.Erbano BO, Opolski AC, Olandoski M, Foggiatto JA, Kubrusly LF, Dietz UA, Zini C, et al. Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional biomodels as an adjuvant in the surgical planning for intracranial aneurysms. (1678–2674 (Electronic)).Google Scholar
- 7.Mashiko T, Otani K, Kawano R, Konno T, Kaneko N, Ito Y, et al. Development of three-dimensional hollow elastic model for cerebral aneurysm clipping simulation enabling rapid and low cost prototyping. LID – S1878–8750(13)01357–0 [pii] LID – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2013.10.032 [doi]. (1878–8750 (Electronic)).
- 8.Benet A, Plata-Bello J, Abla AA, Acevedo-Bolton G, Saloner D, Lawton MT. Implantation of 3D-printed patient-specific aneurysm models into cadaveric specimens: a new training paradigm to allow for improvements in cerebrovascular surgery and research. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:939387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Khan IS, Kelly PD, Singer RJ. Prototyping of cerebral vasculature physical models. Surg Neurol Int. 2014;5(2229–5097 (Print)):11.Google Scholar
- 29.Luciano C, Banerjee P, Lemole GM Jr, Charbel F. Second generation haptic ventriculostomy simulator using the ImmersiveTouch system. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;119:343–8.Google Scholar
- 30.Manson A, Poyade M, Rea PA. Recommended workflow methodology in the creation of an educational and training application incorporating a digital reconstruction of the cerebral ventricular system and cerebrospinal fluid circulation to aid anatomical understanding. BMC Med Imaging. 2015;15:44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Goel A, Jankharia B, Shah A, Sathe P. Three-dimensional models: an emerging investigational revolution for craniovertebral junction surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016(1547–5646 (Electronic)):1–5.Google Scholar
- 35.Hu Y, Yuan ZS, Spiker WR, Dong WX, Sun XY, Yuan JB, et al. A comparative study on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement assisted by personalized rapid prototyping template between pre- and post-operation in patients with relatively normal mid-upper thoracic spine. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(6):1706–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Otsuki B, Takemoto M, Fujibayashi S, Kimura H, Masamoto K, Matsuda S. Utility of a custom screw insertion guide and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster model for guiding safe surgical exposure and screw insertion during spine revision surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016;25(1):94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar