Physical Simulators and Replicators in Endovascular Neurosurgery Training

  • Chander SadasivanEmail author
  • Baruch B. Lieber
  • Henry H. Woo
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)


The increased adoption of endovascular neurosurgery procedures to treat cerebrovascular pathologies has led to the commercialization of a wide array of medical devices which, in turn, necessitates a more sophisticated training environment for physicians and fellows than the traditional “see one, do one, teach one” concept. Improvements in simulation technology and a changing healthcare culture are facilitating a wider assimilation of benchtop simulation models in lieu of cadaver or animal models in physician training as well as treatment planning. Medical device manufacturers as well as regulators are also increasingly utilizing such simulators for device development and assessment of efficacy. Low-fidelity physical simulacra in the form of simplistic vascular replicas with or without coarse pumping systems have been available for basic neuroendovascular simulations for several years. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has ushered in the use of anatomically accurate vascular replicas derived from patient imaging. Other considerations that improve the fidelity of simulating the neuroendovascular compartment include flows and pressures, catheter friction, blood-analog fluid, X-ray attenuation, etc. This chapter briefly describes these components of high-fidelity physical simulators, called replicators, for endovascular neurosurgery training.


Pulsatile flow Hemodynamics Blood-mimicking fluid Viscosity Vascular replica Patient-specific anatomy Silicone Friction X-ray attenuation Aneurysm Large vessel occlusion Thrombectomy Arteriovenous malformations 



We thank Brandon Kovarovic for his assistance in writing portions of the Flow Pumps section.

Conflict of Interest

All authors have a significant financial interest in Vascular Simulations, LLC.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chander Sadasivan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Baruch B. Lieber
    • 1
  • Henry H. Woo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryCerebrovascular Research Center, Stony Brook University Medical CenterStony BrookUSA

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