The Role of the NREF Endovascular and Cerebrovascular Courses in Neurosurgical Residency and Fellowship Training and Future Directions

  • Jay Vachhani
  • Jaafar Basma
  • Erol Veznedaroglu
  • Michael Lawton
  • Emad Aboud
  • Adam Arthur
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)


In 1980, the National Education and Research Foundation was established by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. One of its primary goals is to provide education to Neurosurgeons at all stages of their career. In recent years, technological advances, increased public demand for safety, and duty hour restrictions have decreased the opportunity for neurosurgical residents to gain exposure to complex cerebrovascular surgeries. Surgical simulation and cadaver dissections offer physicians the opportunity to learn complex anatomy and techniques without harming patients. Although simulation has been widely used in many nonmedical fields, neurosurgical simulation is still in its infancy. In this chapter, we review the history and role of the vascular education courses in training neurosurgical residents and neurointerventional fellows.


Simulation Cerebrovascular Cerebral Aneurysm Endovascular Neurosurgery Education 



The authors would like to acknowledge Joni Shulman who worked tirelessly and with great patience and humor to make the NREF educational courses possible. Many residents, fellows and faculty owe her a tremendous debt of gratitude.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay Vachhani
    • 1
  • Jaafar Basma
    • 1
  • Erol Veznedaroglu
    • 2
  • Michael Lawton
    • 3
  • Emad Aboud
    • 4
  • Adam Arthur
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center and Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine InstituteMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Drexel Neurosciences InstitutePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Barrow Neurologic InstitutePhoenixUSA
  4. 4.Arkansas Neurologic InstituteLittle RockUSA

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