Role of Immersive Touch Simulation in Neurosurgical Training

  • Denise Brunozzi
  • Sophia F. Shakur
  • Amanda Kwasnicki
  • Rahim Ismail
  • Fady T. Charbel
  • Ali AlarajEmail author
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)


Over years, neurosurgical training is changing: sophisticated clinical skills to learn are challenged by catastrophic consequences in case of surgical mistakes, and patient safety and procedure efficacy have a higher priority than educational training. Practice, though, is the mainstay for surgical learning and skills improvement, and simulation models provide training opportunity in a safe and controlled environment.

Nowadays the virtual reality simulation allows reliable three-dimensional human model reproduction in a broad scope of anatomical variants.

ImmersiveTouch reality enables training of hand-eye coordination and acquisition of sophisticated psychomotor skills by providing both visual and haptic feedback. Different modules have been developed, from the simplest lumbar puncture to the most complicated aneurysm clipping procedure. Through hand and head electromagnetic tracking, the ImmersiveTouch system computes viewer’s perspective around the virtual anatomic model, making the experience even more realistic.

The score system of each module is based on the accuracy of the procedure performed and allows objective skills assessment. The effective enhancing capacity of ImmersiveTouch modules on trainee skills has been verified in several studies of repeated practice and of comparison of in vivo procedural outcomes before and after simulation training.

ImmersiveTouch simulator, though, seems to be the answer to the needs of moving toward a more standardized neurosurgical educational training in a safer environment.


ImmersiveTouch Simulation Neurosurgical education Training modules Spine Ventriculostomy Aneurysm clipping 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise Brunozzi
    • 1
  • Sophia F. Shakur
    • 1
  • Amanda Kwasnicki
    • 1
  • Rahim Ismail
    • 1
  • Fady T. Charbel
    • 1
  • Ali Alaraj
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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