Advertisement

Historical Institutionalism: Nationalism, Institutions and Citizenship of Ethnic Minorities

  • Maurizio Geri
Chapter
  • 194 Downloads
Part of the Minorities in West Asia and North Africa book series (MWANA)

Abstract

This chapter, like the others, starts with an introduction to the theoretical background of this approach applied to the two case studies, arguing that history and institutions are fundamental for understanding the current political outcomes in domestic politics. This is done through a presentation of four subvariables: the history of state formation and its institutions, the nature of citizens’ rights, the history of discrimination against ethnic minorities, and the institutionalization of ethnicity with the creation of so-called ethnic democracies. Then the chapter analyzes the case studies to search for evidence. The conclusion drawn is that even if nationalism and institutions assumed different forms in Turkey, there remains the fact that nationalist and exclusive institutions created a path dependency. By contrast, for Indonesia the more open nationalism and more inclusive institutions dating to the beginning of its independence opened the door to more decentralization and autonomization.

References

  1. Akturk, Sener. 2015. Religion and Nationalism: Contradictions of Islamic Origins and Secular Nation-Building in Turkey, Algeria, and Pakistan. Social Science Quarterly 96 (3): 778–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al Qurtuby, Sumanto. 2015. Interethnic Violence, Separatism and Political Reconciliation in Turkey and Indonesia. India Quarterly 71 (2): 126–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aslan, Senem. 2014. Nation-Building in Turkey and Morocco. Governing Kurdish and Berber Dissent. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertrand, Jacques. 2004. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bowen, John. 2005. Normative Pluralism in Indonesia: Regions, Religions, and Ethnicities. In Multiculturalism in Asia, ed. Will Kymlicka and Baogang He, 152–169. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bubandt, Nils Ole. 2004. Vernacular Security: Governmentality, Traditionality and Ontological (In)security in Indonesia. Danish Institute for International Studies, Working Paper No. 24.Google Scholar
  8. Casier, Marlies, and Joost Jongerden. 2011. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism, and the Kurdish Issue. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Cleveland, William. 2004. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hadiz, Vedi. 2010. Localising Power in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: A Southeast Asia Perspective. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Haklai, Oded. 2014. Regime Transition and the Emergence of Ethnic Democracies. In Democratization and Ethnic Minorities: Conflict or Compromise? ed. Jacques Bertrand and Oded Haklai. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Hammar, Tomas. 1990. Democracy and the Nation-State: Aliens, Denizens, and Citizenship in a World of International Migration. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
  13. Heper, Metin. 2007. State and Kurds in Turkey: The Question of Assimilation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kinzer, Stephen. 2008. Crescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  15. Lev, Daniel. 2009. The Transition to Guided Democracy: Indonesian Politics 1957–1959. Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Lewis, Bernard. 2001. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Linz, Juan, and Alfred Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  18. McRae, Dave. 2002. A Discourse on Separatists. Indonesia No. 74 (October). Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program Publications at Cornell University, pp. 37–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miller, Michelle Ann. 2006. What’s Special About Special Autonomy in Aceh? In Verandah of Violence. The Background to the Aceh Problem, ed. Anthony Reid. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Natali, Denise. 2005. The Kurds and the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Pisani, Elizabeth. 2015. Indonesia, Etc.: Exploring the Improbable Nation. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  22. Schneier, Edward. 2016. Muslim Democracy: Politics, Religion and Society in Indonesia, Turkey and the Islamic World. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Smooha, Sammy. 2002. The Model of Ethnic Democracy: Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State. Nations and Nationalism 8 (4): 475–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stokke, Kristian, Olle Törnquist, and Gyda Marås Syndre. 2009. Conflict Resolution and Democratization in the Aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami: A Comparative Analysis of Aceh and Sri Lanka. Power, Conflict and Democracy in South & Southeast Asia 1 (1–2): 129–149.Google Scholar
  25. Stuurman, Siep. 2004. Citizenship and Cultural Differences in France and the Netherlands. In Lineages of European Citizenship: Rights, Belonging and Participation in Eleven Nation-States, ed. Richard Bellamy, Dario Castiglione, and Emilio Santoro, 167–186. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sukarno Speech. 1998. The Birth of Pancasila June 1, 1945. From: Clive J. Christie, Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century. New York: Tauris, 135–136.Google Scholar
  27. Thelen, Kathleen, and Sven Steinmo. 1992. Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics. In Structuring Politics. Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis, ed. Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Törnquist, Olle. 2011. Dynamics of Peace and Democratization. The Aceh Lessons. Democratization 18 (3): 823–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vickers, Adrian. 2005. A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Widodo, Handoyo Puji, and Aan Erlyana Fardhani. 2011. The Language Rights of Indigenous Languages: An Approach to Maintaining Indonesia’s Linguistic and Cultural Diversity. In Linguistic Diversity and Cultural Identity: A Global Perspective, ed. Quynh Lê and Tao Lê. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Geri
    • 1
  1. 1.ACT-NATONorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations