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This chapter discusses the ethodology of the research conducted for this book. The methodological approach is a qualitative analysis of case studies. There are several reasons for using qualitative analysis for this research. First of all, case studies are suitable for understanding the falsifiability of a theory because of its in-depth analysis. Furthermore, the research design is based on the “most similar systems” (Miller criteria) and on “process tracing” to elucidate the causal chain between the independent variables and the outcome. The chapter also explains the choice of the two case studies along with the selection criteria, which include above all ethnic but not religious heterogeneity, a common constitutional secularism, a recent history of democratization with a unique path to its attainment, and an armed independence struggle for both national independence and ethnic minority independence. Finally, the chapter describes the causal mechanism in the research with the four main hypotheses.
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