Sandy Soils

  • Khan Towhid Osman


Sandy soils contain high proportion of sand particles, more than sixty eight percent by weight in their mechanical composition. They are common in the drylands, but many soils in the humid and subhumid regions are also sandy. They may be moist for variable periods in the low lands and humid regions, and dry in the high lands where they are low moisture retentive. Sandy soils are naturally poorly fertile, and when they are fertilized and irrigated, they cannot retain much water and nutrients. Natural vegetation in sandy soils is usually composed of grasses and forests, and, through innovative and intensive management, they can be profitably used for a variety of cereals and vegetables.


Psamments Aerenosols Low moisture retentive soils Hydrogel Biochar Mulching Dune stabilization 


  1. AlKhanbashi A, Abdalla SHW (2006) Evaluation of three waterborne polymers as stabilizers for sandy soil. Geotech Geol Eng 24:1603–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakayoko S, Soro D, Nindjin C, Dao D, Tschannen A, Girardin O, Assa A (2009) Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and adsorption complex of a sandy soil under cassava cultivation (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). Afr J Environ Sci Technol 3(8):190–197Google Scholar
  3. Basso AS, Miguez FE, Laird DA, Horton R, Westgate M (2013) Assessing potential of biochar for increasing water-holding capacity of sandy soils. GCB Bioenergy 5:132–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baum E, Weitner S (2006) Biochar application on soils and cellulosic ethanol production. Clean Air Task Force, BostonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergamaschi H, Dalmago GA (2006) Brazil: Can the no-tillage system affect the use of irrigation in tropical and subtropical cropping areas? Food Agriculture Organization. Retrieved March 5, 2011
  6. Berthelsen S, Noble AD, Ruaysoongnern S, Huan H, Yi J (2007) Addition of clay based ameliorants to light textured soils to reduce nutrient loss and increase crop productivity. In ‘Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Management of Tropical Sandy Soils, Khon Kaen, Thailand, Nov. 2005’, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanchart E, Albrecht A, Bernoux M, Brauman A, Chotte JL, Feller C, Gany F, Hien E, Manlay R, Masse D, Sall S, Villenave C (2007) Organic matter and biofunctioning in tropical sandy soils and implications for its management. In: Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Management of Tropical Sandy Soils, Khon Kaen, Thailand, Nov. 2005. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, pp 224–241Google Scholar
  8. Bleeker T, Miceli C, Nieuwsma J, Prather E (2013) Efficacy of sand fences in stabilizing a steep active dune blowout, Castle Park Reserve, Michigan. Dunes Research Report No. 4, Department of Geology, Geography and Environmental Studies, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  9. Bortoluzzi EC (2003) Nature des constituants, propriétéschimiques et physiques des sols. Influence de la gestion de sols sableux au Sud du Brésil. ThèseInstitut National Agronomique, Grignon (INA PG), ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruand A, Hartmann C, Lesturgez G (2005) Physical properties of tropical sandy soils: a large range of behaviours. Session 4 Physical properties of tropical sandy soils. Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture “A holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics”. 27th November – 2nd December 2005, FAO, KhonKaen, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryla DR, Banuelos GS, Mitchell JP (2003) Water requirements of subsurface drip-irrigated faba bean in California. Irrig Sci 22(1):31–37Google Scholar
  12. Burt R, Wilson MA, Kanyanda CW, Spurway JKR, Metzler JD (2001) Properties and effects of management on selected granitic soils in Zimbabwe. Geoderma 101:119–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Croker J, Poss R, Hartmann C, Bhuthorndharaj S (2004) Effects of recycled bentonite addition on soil properties, plant growth and nutrient uptake in a tropical sandy soil. Plant Soil 267:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Descloitres M, Ribolzi O, Troquer Y (2003) Study of infiltration in a Sahelian gully erosion area using time lapse resistivity mapping. Catena 53(3):229–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Desert Research Institute (2011) Sand dune stabilization methods – a global tour. Keeler Dunes Meeting August 24, 2011. Great Basin Unified, Air Pollution Control DistrictGoogle Scholar
  16. Dewever F, Ottevaere D (2003) Terra Cottem in growing media. Proceedings of the international peat symposium in horticulture. Additives in Growth Media, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinnes DL, Karlen DL, Jaynes DB, Kaspar TC, Hatfield JL, Colvin TS, Cambardella CA (2002) Nitrogen management strategies to reduce nitrate leaching in tile-drained Midwestern soils. Agron J 94:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Djurovic N, Stricevic R, Pivic R, Petkovic S, Gregoric E (2011) Influence of hydrogel on water Conservation and N uptake by barley irrigated with saline water: a pot study. ICID 21st International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage, 15–23 October 2011, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  19. Duan Z, Xiao H, Li X, Dong Z, Wang G (2004) Evolution of soil properties on stabilized sands in the Tengger Desert, China. Geomorphology 59:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Durovic N, Pivic R, Pocuca V (2012) Effects of the application of a hydrogel in different soils. Agric For 53(07, 1–4):25–34Google Scholar
  21. Eldridge DJ, Leys JF (2003) Exploring some relationships between biological soil crusts, soil aggregation and wind erosion. J Arid Environ 53:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El-Hady OA, Abo-Sedera SA (2006) Conditioning effect of composts and acrylamide hydrogels on a sandy calcareous soil. II – Physico-bio-chemical properties of the soil. Int J Agric Biol 8(6):876–884Google Scholar
  23. El-Hady OA, Abd El-Kader AA, Shafi AM (2009) Physico-bio-chemical properties of sandy soil conditioned with acrylamide hydrogels after cucumber plantation. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3(4):3145–3151Google Scholar
  24. FAO (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006, a framework for international classification, correlation and communication. FAO–UNESCO–ISRIC. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. FAO (2011) Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation Agriculture on small farms. Integrated Crop Management Vol 12-2010, Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 108Google Scholar
  26. Forbes MS, Raison RJ, Skjemstad OJ (2006) Formation, transformation and transport of black carbon (charcoal) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 370(1):190–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gillman GP (2007) Hydrotalcite: leaching-retarded fertilizers for sandy soils. In Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the international conference on the management of tropical sandy soils, KhonKaen, Thailand, Nov. 2005, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  28. Glaser B, Haumaier L, Guggenberger G, Zech W (2001) The ‘Terra Preta’ phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften 88:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gong FH, He XD, Peng XY (2001) The performance and cost comparison of several sand stabilization methods along the highroads in Tarim Desert comparison study. Deserts China 21(1):45–49Google Scholar
  30. Goossens D (2004) Effect of soil crusting on the emission and transport of wind-eroded sediment: field measurements on loamy sandy soil. Geomorphology 58:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grabow GL, Huffman RL, Evans RO, Edmisten K, Jordan D (2002) Subsurface drip irrigation research on commodity crops in North Carolina. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 022290. St. Joseph, Mich. ASAEGoogle Scholar
  32. Gubry-Rangin C, Nicol GW, Prosser JI (2010) Archaea rather than bacteria control nitrification in two agricultural acidic soils. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 74:566–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hammond D, Steege H, Van der Borg K (2007) Upland soil charcoal in the wet tropical forests of central Guyana. Biotropica 39(2):153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Han Z, Wang T, Dong Z, Hu Y, Yao Z (2007) Chemical stabilization of mobile dune fields along a highway in the Taklimakan Desert of China. J Arid Environ 68:260–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hao X, Chang C, Li X (2004) Long-term and residual effects of cattle manure application on distribution of P in soil aggregates. Soil Sci 169:715–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hartmann C, Poss R, Janeau JL, Bourdon E, Lesturgez G, Ratanaanupap S (2002) Use of granular material theories to interpret structural changes in sandy soil. In: 17th World Congress of Soil Science, Bangkok, Thailand, 14-20-August 2002. Symposium no. 04, Paper no. 2108Google Scholar
  37. Hoa HTT (2008) Soil characteristics, cropping patterns, and use of organic resources in the coastal sandy area of ThuaThien Hue province, Central Vietnam. PhD Thesis. Universitécatholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoa HTT, Cong PT, Tam HM, Chen W, Bell R (2010) Sandy soils in South Central Coastal Vietnam: Their origin, constraints and Management. In: 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1–6 August 2010, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  39. Hugenholtz CH, Wolfe SA, Bender D (2010) Declining sand dune activity in the southern Canadian prairies: historical context, controls and ecosystem implications. Aeolian Res 2:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ibrahim MA, Hamad I, Al-Abdul W et al (2002) Stabilization of dune sand using foamed asphalt. Geotech Test J 25(2):168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Janeau JL, Bricquet JP, Planchon O, Valentin C (2003) Soil crusting and infiltration on steep slopes in northern Thailand. Eur J Soil Sci 54:543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kukal SS, Aggarwal GC (2002) Percolation losses of water in relation puddling intensity and depth in a sandy loam rice (Oryza sativa L.) field. Agric Water Manag 57:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lamm FR, Trooien TP (2002) Subsurface drip irrigation for corn production: a review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrig Sci 22(3−4):195–200Google Scholar
  44. Lamm FR, Trooien TP (2005) Dripline depth effects on corn production when crop establishment is non-limiting. Appl Eng Agric 21(5):835–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lazányi J (2005) Effects of bentonite on the water budget of sandy soil. Technologii de Cultura Pentru Grau Si Porumb Sympozion International. 7-8 iulie Oradea-RomaniaGoogle Scholar
  46. Leciejewski P (2009) The effect of hydrogel additives on the water retention curve of sandy soil from forest nursery in Julinek. J Water Land Develop 13a:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lehmann J, da Silva Jr JP, Rondon M, Cravo MS, Greenwood J, Nehls T, Steiner C, Glaser B (2002) Slash-and-char – a feasible alternative for soil fertility management in the central Amazon?. In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress of Soil Science, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  48. Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M (2006) Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems a review. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 11:403–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lesturgez G (2005) Densification des sols sableux sous culture mécanisée. Cas du Nord-EstThaïlandais. Thèse Université Henri Poincaré Nancy, FranceGoogle Scholar
  50. Li XR, Xiao HL, Zhang JG, Wang XP (2004) Long-term ecosystem effects of sand-binding vegetation in the Tengger Desert, Northern China. Restor Ecol 12:376–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lu YC, Watkins KB, Teasdale JR, Abdul-Baki AA (2000) Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Rev Intrnl 16:121–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McClintock NC, Diop AM (2005) Soil fertility management and compost use in Senegal’s Peanut Basin. Int J Agric Sust 3(2):79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mithchel JP, Pettygrove DGS, Upadhaya DS, Shreshtha DA, Roy R, Hogan P, Vargas R, Hembree K (2009) Classification of conservation tillage practices in California Irrigated Row Crop Systems. Publication 8364, University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  54. Mizuta K, Matsumoto T, Hatate Y, Nishihara K, Nakanishi T (2004) Removal of nitrate nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal. Bioresour Technol 95:255–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moghadam BK, Jamili T, Nadian H, Shahbazi E (2015) The influence of sugarcane mulch on sand dune stabilization in Khuzestan, the southwest of Iran. Iran Agric Res 34(2):71–80Google Scholar
  56. Mulcahy DN, Mulcahy D, Dietz D (2013) Biochar soil amendment increases tomato seedling resistance to drought in sandy soils. J Arid Env 88:222–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muñoz-Carpena R, Dukes MD (2005) Automatic irrigation based on soil moisture for vegetable crops. Document AE354, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, UF/IFAS Extension, University of Florida,
  58. Muñoz-Carpena R, Bryan H, Klassen W, Dukes MD (2003) Automatic soil moisture−based drip irrigation for improving tomato production. Proc Florida State Horticul Soc 116:80–85Google Scholar
  59. Neelam P, Rajput TBS (2007) Effect of drip tape placement depth and irrigation level on yield of potato. Agric Water Manag 32(3):209–223Google Scholar
  60. Newman JK, Tingle JS, Gill R, McCaffrey T (2005) Stabilization of silty sands using polymer emulsion. Int J Pavemal 4:1–12Google Scholar
  61. Noble AD, Gillman GP, Ruaysoongnern S (2000) A cation exchange index for assessing degradation of acid soil by further acidification under permanent agriculture in the topics. Eur J Soil Sci 51:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Noble AD, Ruaysoongnern S, Berthelsen S, Penning de Vries FWT, Giordano M (2005) Enhancing the agronomic productivity of degraded soils through clay-based interventions. Int J Agric Sustain 3:102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nyamangara J, Gotosa J, Mpofu SE (2001) Cattle manure effects on structural stability and water retention capacity of a granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe. Soil Till Res 62:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Orikiriza LJB, Agaba H, Tweheyo M, Eilu G, Kabasa JD, Huttermann A (2009) Amending soils with hydrogels increases the biomass of nine tree species under non-water stress conditions. Clean 37(8):615–620Google Scholar
  65. Osman KT (2014) Soil degradation, conservation and remediation. Sprnger Science + Business Media, DodrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pártay G, Rajkainé VK, Lukács A (2006) Kálium- migrációvizsgálatakáliföldpáttalkezeltgyökérközegben. Agrokémiaés Talajtan 55(2):395–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pye K, Tsoar H (2009) Aeolian sands and sand dunes. Springer, Berlin HeidelburgCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Radovic LR, Moreno-Castilla C, Rivera-Utrilla J (2001) Carbon materials as adsorbents in aqueous solutions. In: Radovic LR (ed) Chemistry and physics of carbon. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Ribolzi O, Bariac T, Casenave A, Delhoume JP, Ducloux J, Valles V (2003) Hydrochemistry of runoff and subsurface flow within Sahelianmicrodune. Eur J Soil Sci 54:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ribolzi O, Hermida M, Karambiri H, Delhoume JP, Thiombiano L (2005) Wind processes improve water infiltration in Sahelian sandy rangeland. In: Management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture: A holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics, 27 November – 2 December 2005, KhonKaen, Thailand; Proceedings, Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture, Khon Kaen (Thailand), 27 Nov – 2 Dec 2005 / International Union of Soil Sciences, Wageningen (Netherlands); Land Development Department, Bangkok (Thailand); International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka); FAO, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; KhonKaen University (Thailand). Faculty of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruan HX, Ahuja LR, Green TR, Benjamin JG (2001) Residue cover and surface-sealing effects on infiltration: numerical simulations for field applications. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65(3):853–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sam L, Vuong ND (2008) Real condition of soil – water resources and desert threat, nature catastrophe in the sandy area of Binh Thuan province. Scientific collection in 2008. South Institute of irrigation science. (In Vietnamese, with English abstract)Google Scholar
  73. Sarapatka B, Rak L, Bubenikova I (2004) Effects of hydroabsorbent used on extremely sandy soils on soil biological and biochemical characteristics. EUROSOIL, September, 04 – 12 Freiburg, Germany, CD-RomGoogle Scholar
  74. Schnitzler HU, Kalko EKV, Kaipf I, Grinnell AD (1994) Fishing and echolocation behavior of the greater bulldog bat, Noctilioleporinus, in the Æeld. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:327–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shahid SA, Qidwai AA, Anwar F, Ullah I, Rashid U (2012) Improvement in the water retention characteristics of sandy loam soil using a newly synthesized poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite material. Molecules 17:9397–9412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shirato Y, Zhang TH, Ohkuro T, Fujiwara H, Taniyama I (2005) Changes in topographical features and soil properties after exclosure combined with sand-fixing measures in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 51(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sitthaphanit S, Limpinuntana V, Toomsan B, Panchaban S, Bell RW (2009) Fertiliser strategies for improved nutrient use efficiency on sandy soils in high rainfall regimes. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 85:123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sivapalan S (2006) Benefits of treating a sandy soil with a crosslinked-type polyacrylamide. Aus J Expt Agri 46:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Soil Survey Staff (1999) Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys, 2nd edn. Agriculture Handbook No. 436, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  80. Sorensen RB, Wright FS, Butts CL (2001a) Subsurface drip irrigation system designed for research in row crop rotations. Appl Eng Agric 17(2):171–176Google Scholar
  81. Sorensen RB, Wright FS, Butts CL (2001b) Pod yield and kernel size distribution of peanut produced using subsurface drip irrigation. Appl Eng Agric 17(2):165–169Google Scholar
  82. Specht A, Harvey-Jones J (2000) Improving water delivery to the roots of recently transplanted seedling trees: the use of hydrogels to reduce leaf loss and hasten root establishment. For Res 1:117–123Google Scholar
  83. Stopnišek N, Gubry-Rangin C, Höfferle S, Nicol GW, Mandić-Mulec I, Prosser JI (2010) Thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidation in an acidic forest peat soil is not influenced by ammonium amendment. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7626–7634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Subbarao GO, Ito K, Berry SW, Nakahara K, Ishikawa T, Watanabe T et al (2006) Scope and strategies for regulation of nitrification in agricultural systems – challenges and opportunities. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:303–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Szegi T, Czibulya ZS, Makádi M, Szeder B (2008) Szerves szervetlen adalékanyagok hatása a nyírségi homoktalajok talajszerkezeti, nedvességgazdálkodási tulajdonságaira és a terméseredményekre. Talajvédelem, különszámGoogle Scholar
  86. Thuy LT, Ha PQ (2007) Total Zn content in sandy soils in Vietnam. Vietnam Soil Sci J 28:5Google Scholar
  87. Titiz B, Sanford R (2007) Soil charcoal in old-growth rain forests from sea level to the continental divide. Biotropica 39:673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tiwari KN, Singh A, Mal PK (2003) Effect of drip irrigation on yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) under mulch and non-mulch conditions. Agric Water Manag 58:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Uchanski ME, Rios A (2012) Killed cover crop residue impacts on soil moisture in an irrigated agricultural system. New Mexico J Sci 46:149–168Google Scholar
  90. Usman A, Kuzyakov Y, Stahr K (2005) Effect of clay minerals on immobilization of heavy metals and microbial activity in a sewage sludge contaminated soil. J Soils Sediments 5(4):245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Valenciano JB, Casquero PA, Boto J (2004) Influence of sowing techniques and pesticide application on the emergence and the establishment of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Agronomie 24(2):113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Valentin C, Rajot J-L, Mitja D (2004) Responses of soil crusting, runoff and erosion to fallowing in the sub-humid and semi-arid regions of West Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Valentin C, Poesen J, Li Y (2005) Gully erosion: impacts, factors and control. Catena 63(2-3):129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vinh N (2005) Coastal sandy soils and constraints for crops in Binh Thuan Province, Southern Central Vietnam. In: Proceedings of internaltional management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture symposium, 28 Nov – 2 Dec 2005. Khon Khaen, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  95. Vityakon P (2005) Soil organic matter loss and fertility degradation under different agricultural land uses in sandy soils of Northeast Thailand and the use of organic materials of different qualities as a possible restoration measure. In: Proceedings of international management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture symposium, 28 Nov – 2 Dec 2005. KhonKhaen, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  96. Voortmana RL, Brouwer J, Albersen PJ (2004) Characterization of spatial soil variability and its effect on millet yield on Sudano-Sahelian cover sands in S.W Niger. Geoderma 121:65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang HJ, Li J, Lu X, Jin Y (2005) A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping mills. J Env Sci 17(4):650–654Google Scholar
  98. Winsley P (2007) Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation. New Zealand Sci Rev 64(1):5–10Google Scholar
  99. Yang K, Zejun T (2012) Effectiveness of fly ash and polyacrylamide as a sand-fixing agent for wind erosion control. Water Air Soil Polluton 223:4065–4074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang ZS, Liu LC, Li XR, Zhang JG, He MZ, Tan HJ (2008) Evaporation properties of a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, Northern China. J Arid Environ 72:964–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan Towhid Osman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations