Hemodynamics of Prehypertension

  • Peter W. de LeeuwEmail author
  • Barry van Varik
  • Daan J. L. van Twist
  • Abraham A. Kroon
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)


Hemodynamic investigations in prehypertensive people have revealed that already at this early stage of hypertension, total peripheral resistance is increased. This is true even in situations where cardiac output is elevated. Heart rate and arterial stiffness are clearly higher as well in prehypertensives as compared to normotensives. As far as the peripheral circulation has been studied, this shows abnormalities in prehypertension which are also consistent with an increased resistance to flow. Altogether, there is not enough evidence to conclude that hypertension evolves from a high-output to a high-resistance state. Rather, the increase in resistance is a primary phenomenon.


Cardiac output Heart rate Prehypertension Autonomic control Renal Arterial stiffness 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter W. de Leeuw
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Barry van Varik
    • 2
  • Daan J. L. van Twist
    • 2
  • Abraham A. Kroon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineMaastricht University Medical CentreMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of MedicineZuyderland Medical CenterGeleen/HeerlenThe Netherlands

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