Heart and Prehypertension

  • Cesare CuspidiEmail author
  • Marijana Tadic
  • Guido Grassi
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)


Asymptomatic alterations of the cardiovascular system reflect intermediate stages in the disease continuum linking risk factors such as high blood pressure (BP), hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking to cardiovascular fatal and nonfatal events. In particular, a variety of manifestations of subclinical target organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LV systolic/diastolic dysfunction, abnormalities in small, medium, and large size arteries, and renal impairment have been reported to be associated with systemic hypertension [1, 2].


Prehypertension Left ventricular hypertrophy Left ventricular remodeling Left ventricular dysfunction Left atrium Echocardiography 



Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesare Cuspidi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marijana Tadic
    • 3
  • Guido Grassi
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Clinical Research UnitIstituto Auxologico ItalianoMedaItaly
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyCharité-University-Medicine Campus Virchow KlinikumBerlinGermany
  4. 4.IRCCS Multimedica, Sesto San GiovanniMilanItaly

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