Negotiation as Frame

  • Raymond Smith
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 23)


This chapter addresses the second of the three dimensions of the negotiation as learning model advanced through the book – The Three Dimensions of Negotiation framework. Drawing on a range of empirical data, it elaborates how workers are engaged in a range of multiple and simultaneous negotiations through their work. Workers are found to enact composite negotiations – those that pre-mediate current activity, and contiguous negotiations – those that are enacted simultaneously in current activity. Negotiation as frame elaborates these temporal and co-continuous aspects of negotiation as the personal negotiation frame or context in and through which workers enact their practice. Such a perspective on learning as negotiation enables work-learning to be seen as workers’ negotiation and renegotiation of the negotiations in which they are engaged – and there are many. Taken together, these numerous negotiations may be said to comprise the ‘frame’ in, of and by which workers enact their practice as personal practice. This frame is personally constructed, not by the individual as sole arbiter of their engagement in activity, but by the individual worker as unique construer and thereby, unique investor of self in the negotiations that constitute their learning and work. Negotiation as frame enables the socio-personal significance of work-learning to be identified as workers’ subscription rather than workers’ obligation to the practices that comprise their work.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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