Negotiation as Form

  • Raymond Smith
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 23)


This chapter is the first of three that comprehensively outline and elaborate each of the dimensions of The Three Dimension of Negotiation framework. Drawing on a range of empirical data, it describes and explains a range of types or different forms of negotiation that workers engage in through their participative work practices. These forms enable the categorisation of workers’ personal practices as negotiation processes and accomplishments associated with the varying levels of purpose and outcome realisation enacted through work. Work is purposeful goal oriented activity and so the levels of purpose enacted and the degrees by which outcomes or goals are realised can become characteristics of different forms of negotiation. At a general level of analysis, workers are found to engage in (i) highly purposeful activity that secures objectives – what is referred to as telic negotiations, and (ii) incidental activity that does not tend to outcome realisation – what is referred to as atelic negotiations. At deeper levels of analysis, workers are found to engage in any and all of four contingent forms of negotiation that evidence contrasting high and low levels of intentionality and high and low levels of outcome realisation. The four contingent forms of negotiation are realised, discovered, concealed, and protracted, which in the analysis are categorised through the use of a personal work negotiation matrix. The matrix enables identifying how workers’ perceptions of their personal practices as negotiation forms compound to generate the socio-personal meanings and legacies workers use to make sense of their practices and the outcomes these accomplish.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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