Role of Sub-national Actors in North American Security
This chapter examines the nature and potential concerns and challenges of still unexplored phenomenon of sub-national actors’ activity in the world politics, especially in the North America. The chapter finds that American non-central governments, even have clear agenda in foreign affairs, are more limited by structured ideas and through structured institutions, than through interests on the states’ level. The chapter also argues that to deal with the rise of states’ activity in foreign affairs, more attention should be given to the question of change and continuity in relations between central and non-central governments, but also between sub-national governments in the North America.
KeywordsUnited states Canada Sub-national governments Environment Cooperation
- Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, François Rocher, and Radha Jhappan. 2007. Politics in North America: Redefining Continental Relations. Peterborough: Broadview Press. Google Scholar
- Adelman, David, and Kirsten H. Engel. 2008. Adaptive Federalism: The Case Against Reallocating Environmental Regulatory Authority. Minnesota Law Review 92 (6): 1796–1850.Google Scholar
- Bache, Ian, and Matthew Flinders (eds.). 2004. Multi-level Governance. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Domínguez, Jorge I., and Rafael Fernández de Castro. 2001. The United States and Mexico: Between Partnership and Conflict. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Duchacek, Ivo D. 1990. Perforated Sovereignties: Towards a Typology of New Actors in International Relations. In Federalism and International Relations: The Role of Subnational Units, ed. Hans J. Michelmann and Panayotis Soldatos, 1–33. Oxford: Clarednon Press.Google Scholar
- Elazar, Daniel. 1984. American Federalism: A View from the States, 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Engel, Kirsten H. 2009. Whither Subnational Climate Change Initiatives in the Wake of Federal Climate Legislation? Publius: The Journal of Federalism 39 (3): 432–454. https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjp008.
- Gardner Edwin I., Jr., Robert S. Montjoy, and Douglas J. Watson. 2001. Moving into Global Competition: A Case Study of Alabama’s Recruitment of Mercedes‐Benz. Review of Policy Research 18 (3): 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2001.tb00196.x.
- Halberstam, Daniel. 2001. Foreign Affairs of Federal Systems: A National Perspective on the Benefits of State Participation. The Villanova Law Review 46 (5): 1015–1068.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, A., J. Madison, and J. Jay. 2007. The Federalist Papers. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Henkin, Louis. 1996. Foreign Affairs and the Constitution, 2nd ed. New York and London: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Hollis, Duncan B. 2010. Unpacking the Compact Clause. Texas Law Review 88 (4): 741–806.Google Scholar
- Hooghe, Liesbet, and Gary Marks. 2003. Unraveling the Central State, but How?: Types of Multi-level Governance. American Political Science Review 97 (2): 233–243.Google Scholar
- Hooghe, Liesbet, and Gary Marks. 2013. Beyond Federalism: Estimating and Explaining the Territorial Structure of Government. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43 (2): 179–204. https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjs029.
- Kazazis, Alexander. 2012. Western Climate Initiative: The Fate of an Experiment in Subnational Cross-Border Environmental Collaboration. The Brooklyn Journal of International Law 37 (3): 1177–1214.Google Scholar
- Ku, Julian G. 2003. The State of New York Does Exist: How the States Control Complicance with International Law. North Carolina Law Review 82: 457–529.Google Scholar
- LaCroix, Alison L. 2010. The Ideological Origins of American Federalism. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Maunula, Marko. 2010. Guten Tag, Y’all: Globalization and the South Carolina Piedmont, 1950–2000. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- McAllister, Lesley K. 2009. Regional Climate Regulation: From State Competition to State Collaboration. San Diego Journal of Climate & Energy Law 1: 81–102.Google Scholar
- Pacheco, Marc R. 2008. Going Global. Commonwealth Magazine, 87–89.Google Scholar
- Paquin, Stéphane, and Annie Chaloux. 2012. Green Paradiplomacy in North America: Successes and Limits of the NEG-ECP. In Sustainable Development and Subnational Governments: Policy-Making and Multi-level Interactions, ed. Hans Bruyninckx, Sander Happaerts, and Karoline van den Brande, 217–236. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Peters, B. Guy, and Jon Pierre. 2004. Multi-level Governance and Democracy: A Faustian Bargain? In Multi-level Governance, ed. Ian Bache and Matthew V. Flinders, 75–89. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rakove, Jack N. 2007. James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic, 3rd ed. New York: Pearson-Longman.Google Scholar
- Resnik, Judith. 2009. What’s Federalism for? In The Consitution in 2020, ed. Jack M. Balkin and Reva B. Siegel, 269–284. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sackinger, R. Bruce. 2005. Paradiplomatic Maneuvers on the Longest Undefended Border: National and Subnational Fire Protection Agreements between Canada and the United States. Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution 13 (2): 319–350.Google Scholar
- Spiro, Peter J. 1999. Foreign Relations Federalism. University of Colorado Law Review 70: 1223–1276.Google Scholar
- Stumberg, Robert, and Matthew C. Porterfield. 2001. Who Preempted the Massachusetts Burma Law? Federalism and Political Accountability Under Global Trade Rules. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 31 (3): 173–204.Google Scholar
- Swaine, Edward T. 2000. Crosby as Foreign Relations Law. Virginia Journal of International Law 41 (2): 481–508.Google Scholar
- Verney, Douglas V. 1995. Federalism, Federative Systems, and Federations: The United States, Canada, and India. Publius 25 (2): 81–97.Google Scholar
- Wilson, Leanne M. 2007. The Fate of the Dormant Foreign Commerce Clause after Garamendi and Crosby. Columbia Law Review 107 (3): 746–789.Google Scholar