Thinkers Rather than Activists

  • Derek Hopwood
Part of the St Antony's Series book series (STANTS)


In the nineteenth century while warriors were fighting the foreign threat to Islam, other Muslims attempted to analyse why the Muslim world was unable to withstand this invasion. Great thinkers such as al-Afghani and Muhammad ‘Abduh suggested ways in which they believed Islam could ‘modernize’ in order to face Europe.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek Hopwood
    • 1
  1. 1.St Antony’s CollegeUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations