Leaders and State Formation
Three later reform movements led to the founding of embryo states of different duration. (i) Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab preached his message of strict Islamic observance in eighteenth-century Arabia, a message accepted by a local ruler Muhammad Ibn Sa’ud which led over time to the foundation of the contemporary Saudi state based on Wahhabi principles. (ii) In northern Nigeria another inspired leader Uthman Dan Fodio preached a stirring message of renewal among local tribesmen who for a time followed him into an Islamic state. (iii) We come to Libya again where several members of the Sanusi family worked among the tribespeople of Cyrenaica to found their Sanusi state. This lasted until the early twentieth century when they were forced into facing the Italian colonization of their country.