Advertisement

Water Quality Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Environment

  • Alfred O. M. Okorogbona
  • Freddie D. N. Denner
  • Lavhelesani R. Managa
  • Tsunduka B. Khosa
  • Khathutshelo Maduwa
  • Patrick O. Adebola
  • Stephen O. Amoo
  • Hanyeleni M. Ngobeni
  • Stanford Macevele
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 27)

Abstract

An estimated 20% of the world’s cropland under irrigated farming produces 40% of the global harvest, which means that irrigation accounts for more than double land productivity. In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, irrigation improves economic returns and boost production up to 400%. Water pollution is a serious threat to agricultural productivity and human health. Research has ascertained that poor water quality resulting from waste discharge into rivers negatively affect crop, animal and soil productivity. Hence, the need to unveil various ways in which human activities negatively affects the quality of water is considered fundamental for today and future generations.

We retrieved information on how water quality affects crop growth and development; the impact of cultivating food crops, using soil contaminated with wastes from humans and or industries. Information on wastewater use in other farming activities; assessment of the effect of heavy metals in agricultural productivity and the impact of soil contamination on produce quality were highlighted.

We found that vegetable crops including cucumber, irrigated with rain water had the highest growth rate with a height of 100 cm, as compared to those irrigated with waste and underground water, which had heights of 45 and 58 cm, respectively. The content of lead (Pb) was found to be low in ground water (0.5 mg L−1), as compared to high contents of the heavy metal found in urban treated and untreated effluents, which were 2.7 and 4.9 mg L−1, respectively. The content of chromium in urban treated effluents 0.03 mg L−1 and urban untreated effluents 0.04 mg L−1 were higher than that of ground water, which was found to be 0.02 mg L−1 as obtained from the average of 48 different analyses. High arsenic level in water negatively affect crop yield. Highest rice yield-3.11 g pot−1 was obtained from water free of arsenate (control), as compared to 0.98 g pot−1 obtained from rice grown in soil irrigated with the highest level of arsenic. At 20 mg kg−1 mercury concentration, tomato failed to produce flower and fruit. High concentration of cadmium at 80 mg L−1 negatively affected the germination of wheat. Oil deposit in soil increases the content of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and cation exchange capacity. Oil deposits to soil decreases the content of magnesium (Mg), exchangeable acidity, organic carbon and organic matter.

Keywords

Wastes Pollution Environment Crop Soil Marine life 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors of this chapter are grateful to all the scientists, agriculturists and researchers whose information retrieved from their research findings, reassessed works and books have contributed to this review work. We acknowledge that the findings presented in this chapter are indicative and not necessarily a total compilation of the findings on the topic. We apologise to authors whose works were not cited to keep the manuscript concise. The authors wish to thank Ms. Keneliwe Hlahane for providing photographs on the acid mine drainage. We also wish to thank Ms. Mafoyane P Malewa for helping us with technical check on the manuscript. The authors are most grateful to Professor Adegoke A Anthony of the Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology-South Africa, for giving us the permission to use the oil spill photographs from his research endeavour. Opinions expressed and conclusion arrived at, are those of the authors and are not necessarily attributable to Rolfes Agri, AISA-HSRC, IITA, DWS and ARC.

References

  1. Abedin MJ, Cotter-Howells J, Meharg AA (2002) Arsenic uptake and accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) irrigated with contaminated water. Plant Soil 240(2):311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abegunrin TP, Awe GO, Idowu DO, Onigbogi OO, Onofua OE (2013) Effect of kitchen wastewater irrigation on soil properties and growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). J Soil Sci Environ Manage 4(7):139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abii TA, Nwosu PC (2009) The effect of oil-spillage on the soil of Eleme in rivers state of the Niger-Delta area of Nigeria. Res J Environ Sci 3(3):316–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achi C (2003) Hydrocarbon exploitation, environmental degradation and poverty. The Niger Delta Experience: Diffuse pollution conference, DublinGoogle Scholar
  5. Adriano DC, Bolan NS, Lelie DV, Vangronsveld J, Wenzel WW (2002) Natural remediation processes-bioavailability interactions in contaminated soils. Proceedings of 17th World Congress of Soil Science, August 2002, Bangkok, Thailand. 14–21 August, (42), pp. 501–512Google Scholar
  6. Agrawal A, Pandey RS, Sharma B (2010) Water pollution with special reference to pesticide contamination in India. J Water Resource Prot 2:432–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad I, Akhtar MJ, Zahir ZA, Jamil A (2012) Effect of cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of four wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivars. Pak J Bot 44(5):1569–1574Google Scholar
  8. Ahmadu J, Egbodion J (2013) Effect of oil spillage on cassava production in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Ame J Exp Agr 3(4):914–992Google Scholar
  9. Ahmed G, Uddin MK, Khan GM, Rahman MS, Chowdhury DA (2009) Distribution of trace metal pollutants in surface water system connected to effluent disposal points of Dhaka export processing zone (DEPZ), Bangladesh: A statistical approach. J Nat Sci Sus Technol 3:293–304Google Scholar
  10. Al-Gazaeri K (1998) Studying the microbial and heavy metals pollutions in Damascus grown plants irrigated with Barada river polluted water and ground water. Ms. Dissertation. University of Damascus University, DamascusGoogle Scholar
  11. Ali M, Bhat AK (2014) Original research article soil microbiological indices of polluted soils of industrial belts of Jammu, India. 3(1):559–576Google Scholar
  12. Arya SK, Roy BK (2011) Manganese induced changes in growth, chlorophyll content and antioxidants activity in seedlings of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) J Environ Biol 32(6):707–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashraf R, Ali TA (2007) Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial community and mung beans seed germination. Pak J Bot 39(2):628–636Google Scholar
  14. Asrar Z, Khavari-Nejad RA, Heidari H (2005) Excess manganese effects on pigments of Mentha spicata at flowering stage. Arch Agron Soil Sci 51(1):101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Assche F, Clijsters H (1990) Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 24:1–15Google Scholar
  16. Aucamp P (2003) Trace-element pollution of soils by abandoned gold-mine tailings near Potchefstroom, South Africa. Bulletin Council Geosci 130:1–60Google Scholar
  17. Balkhair KS, Ashraf MA (2015) Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in a soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci 23(1):S32–S44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrachina AC, Carbonell FB, Beneyto JM (1995) Arsenic uptake, distribution, and accumulation in tomato plants: effect of arsenite on plant growth and yield. J Plant Nutri 18(6):1237–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhale UN (2011) Tolerance of polluted water on seedling growth of some cereal crops. Int. J Latest Trends Bot Sci 1:5–7Google Scholar
  20. Bhuiyan MAH, Suruvi NI, Dampare SB, Islam MA, Ouraishi SB, Ganyaglo S, Suzuki S (2011) Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess 175(1–4):633–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blaylock MJ, Huang JW (2000) Phytoextraction of metals. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: Using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New York, pp 53–70Google Scholar
  22. Bonnet M, Camares O, Veisseire P (2000) Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvApollo). J Exp Bot 51(346):945–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Briggs D (2003) Environmental pollution and the global burden of disease. Br Med Bull 68(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cheraghi M, Lorestani B, Merrikhpour H, Rouniasi N (2013) Heavy metal risk assessment for potatoes grown in overused phosphate-fertilized soils. Environ Monit Assess 185(2):1825–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chibuike GU, Obiora SC (2014) Heavy metal polluted soils: effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Appl Environ Soil Sci:1–12. Available at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2014/752708/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarkson DT, Luttge U (1989) Mineral nutrition: divalent cations, transport and compartmentation. Prog Bot 51:93–112Google Scholar
  27. Cook CM, Kostidou A, Vardaka E, Lanaras T (1997) Effects of copper on the growth, photosynthesis and nutrient concentrations of Phaseolus plants. Photosynthetica 34(2):179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cox MS, Bell PF, Kovar JL (1996) Differential tolerance of canola to arsenic when grown hydroponically or in soil. J Plant Nutri 19(12):1599–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Darvishi HH, Manshouri M, Farahani HA (2010) The effect of irrigation by domestic wastewater on soil properties. J Soil Sci Environ Manage 1(2):030–033Google Scholar
  30. Diels L, Lelie N, Van Der, Bastiaens L (2002) New developments in treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils. Views Environ Sci Biotechnol, (Volesky 2001), pp. 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Djingova R, Kuleff I (2000) Instrumental techniques for trace analysis. In: Vernet JP (ed) Trace elements: their distribution and effects in the environment. Elsevier Science Ltd., United Kingdom, pp 137–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Du X, Zhu YG, Liu WJ, Zhao XS (2005) Uptake of mercury (Hg) by seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in solution culture and interactions with arsenate uptake. Environ Exp Bot 54(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. El Youssfi L, Choukr-Allah R, Zaafrani M, Mediouni T, Sarr F, Hirich A (2012) Effect of domestic treated wastewater use on three varieties of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) under semi-arid conditions. World academy of science. Eng Technol:62Google Scholar
  34. EPA (1992) Environmental protection agency of USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Ettler V, Vane KA, Mihaljevic M, Bezdicka P (2005) Contrasting lead speciation in forest and tilled soils heavily polluted by lead metallurgy. Chemosphere 58:1449–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Feng SY, Shao HB, Huang GH (2002) Field experimental study on the residue of heavy metal in wheat crop. Trans CSAE 18(4):113–115Google Scholar
  37. Fernández-Cirelli A, Aru.mí JL, Rivera D, Boochs WP (2009) Environmental effects of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. Chil J Agric Res 69(1):27–40Google Scholar
  38. Food and Agriculture Organization (2000) User manual for irrigation with treated waste water. FAO regional office for the near east. Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  39. Hussain A, Abbas N, Arshad F, Akram M, Khan I, Ahmad K, Mansha M, Mirzaei F (2013) Effects of diverse doses of lead (Pb) on different growth attributes of Zea-Mays L. Agric Sci 4(5):262–265Google Scholar
  40. Inya AE (1997) The Nigerian state oil exploration and community interest: issues and perspectives. University of Port Harcourt, RiversGoogle Scholar
  41. Jayakumar K, Jaleel CA, Azooz AA (2008) phytochemical changes in green gram (Vigna radiata) under cobalt stress, global J Mol Sci, 3(2):46–49Google Scholar
  42. Jayakumar K, Jaleel CA, Vijayarengan P (2007) Changes in growth, biochemical constituents, and antioxidant potentials in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under cobalt stress. Turk J Biol 31(3):127–136Google Scholar
  43. Jayakumar K, Rajesh M, Baskaran L, Vijayarengan P (2013) Changes in nutritional metabolism of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum mill.) plants exposed to increasing concentration of cobalt chloride. Int J Food Nutr Safety 4(2):62–69Google Scholar
  44. Jia L, Wang W, Li Y, Yang L (2010) Heavy metals in soil and crops of an intensively farmed area: a case study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(2):395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jiang W, Liu D, Hou W (2001) Hyperaccumulation of cadm ium by roots, bulbs and shoots of garlic. Bioresour Technol 76(1):9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jimoh WLO, Mohammed MI (2012) Assessment of cadmium and lead in soil and tomatoes grown in irrigated farmland of the Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Res J Environ Earth Sci 4(1):55–59Google Scholar
  47. Jolly YN, Islam A, Akbar S (2013) Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables and possible health risk assessment. Springer-Plus 2(1):385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jouret P, Schumacher T, Boc A, Reese RN (2002) Rhizosphere acidification and cadmium uptake by strawberry clover. J Environ Qual 31:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jouzdan O (2002) Effect of irrigation with untreated sewage water, treated sewage water and ground water on soil physical, hydrological and chemical properties and on the production of some vegetable and field crops by using lysimeters. MSc dissertation. Damascus University, DamascusGoogle Scholar
  50. Kabir M, Iqbal MZ, Shafiq M (2009) Effects of lead on seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L. Adv Environ Biol 3(2):184–190Google Scholar
  51. Kagambega N, Sawadogo S, Bamba O, Zombre P, Galvez R (2014) Acid mine drainage and heavy metals contamination of surface water and soil in southwest Burkina Faso – West Africa. IntJ Multidiscip Acad Res 2(3):9–19Google Scholar
  52. Khalid BY, Tinsley J (1980) Some effects of nickel toxicity on rye grass. Plant Soil 55(1):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kibra MG (2008) Effects of mercury on some growth parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Soil Environ 27(1):23–28Google Scholar
  54. Lewandowski I, Hardtlein M, Kaltschmitt M (1999) Sustainable Crop Production: Definition and Methodological Approach for Assessing and Implementing Sustainability. Crop Sci 39:184–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liao J, Wen Z, Ru X, Chen J, Wu H, Wei C (2016) Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil and crops affected by acid mine drainage: Public health implications in Guangdong Province China. Ecotoxi Environ Safety 124:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Likuku S, Mmolawa KB, Gaboutloeloe GK (2013) Assessment of heavy metal enrichment and degree of contamination around the copper-nickel mine in the selebi phikwe region, Eastern Botswana. Environ Ecol Res 1(2):32–40Google Scholar
  57. Liu J, Li K, Zhang Z, Lu X, Yu B, Cai Y, Yang J, Z Q (2004) Difference of lead uptake and distribution in rice cultivars and its mechanism. Chin J Appl Ecol 15:291–294Google Scholar
  58. Mahfuz MA, Ahmad JU, Sultana MS, Rahman MM, Goni MA, Rahman MS (2004) Status of physicochemical properties of wastewater in Bangladesh: A cash studies in Dhalai Beel of DEPZ. Bangladesh. J Environ Res 2:9–15Google Scholar
  59. Manders P, Godfrey L, Hobbs P (2009) Acid mine drainage in South Africa. CSIR, (August), pp. 1–2Google Scholar
  60. Manivasagaperumal R, Balamurugan S, Thiyagarajan G, Sekar J (2011) Effect of Zinc on Germination, seedling growth and biochemical content of cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub). Curr Bot 2(5):11–15Google Scholar
  61. McCarthy TS (2011) The impact of acid mine drainage in South Africa. South Afr J Sci 107(5/6):1–7Google Scholar
  62. Mo Z, Wang CX, Chen Q (2002) Distribution and enrichment of heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd in paddy plant. Environ Chem 21:110–116Google Scholar
  63. Moral R, Gomez I, Pedreno JN, Mataix J (1996) Absorption of Cr and effects on micronutrient content in tomato plant (LycopersicumesculentumM.) Agrochimica 40(2):132–138Google Scholar
  64. Mortula MM, Rahman MS (2002) Study on waste disposal at DEPZ. Bangladesh Environ (BAPA). 2:807–817Google Scholar
  65. Muller PJ, Suess E (1979) Productivity, sedimentation rate and sedimentary organic matter in the oceans. I. Organic carbon preservation. Deep Sea Res 26:1347–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naicker K, Cukrowska E, McCarthy TS (2003) Acid mine drainage arising from gold mining activity in Johannesburg, South Africa and environs. Environ Pollut 122(1):29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nazir R, Khan M, Masab M, Rehman HU, Rauf NU, Shahab S, Ameer N, Sajed M, Ullah M, Rafeeq M, Shaheen Z (2015) Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam Kohat. J Pharm Sci Res 7(3):89–97Google Scholar
  68. Ndubusi-Nnaji UU, Adegoke AA, Inyang CU (2015) Health issues and food sustainability challenges in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. J Multi Sci Res 3(5):10–16Google Scholar
  69. Nicholls NNM, Mal TK (2003) Effects of lead and copper exposure on growth of an invasive weed, Lythrum salicaria L. (Purple Loosestrife) 1. Ohio J Sci 103(5):129–133Google Scholar
  70. Okorogbona AOM, Adebola P (2015) Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity in African Sustainable Agriculture. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. Springer, Switzerland, pp 257–291Google Scholar
  71. Okoye CO, Okunrobo LA (2014) Impact of oil spill on land and water and its health implications in Odugboro community, Sagamu, Ogun state Nigeria. World J Environ Sci Eng 1: 1–21.Google Scholar
  72. Olatunji OS, Opeolu BO, Fatoki OS, Ximba BJ (2013) Heavy metals concentration levels in selected arable agricultural soils in. South Western Nigeria 8(11):421–427Google Scholar
  73. Oyem ILR, Oyem IL (2013) Effects of Crude Oil Spillage on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Ugborodo Community. Int J Mod Eng Res 3(6):3336–3342Google Scholar
  74. Pandolfini T, Gabbrielli R, Comparini C (1992) Nickel toxicity and peroxidase activity in seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. Plant Cell Environ 15(6):719–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pescod MB (1991) Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. FAO irrigation and drainage, paper number 47, Rome, pp 350Google Scholar
  76. Powlson DS, Gregory PJ, Whalley WR, Quinton JN, Hopkins DW, Whitmore AP, Shoenholtza SH, Van Miegroet H, Burger JA (2000) A review of chemical and physical properties as indicators of forest soil quality: challenges and opportunities. For Ecol Manage 138:335–356Google Scholar
  77. Prost R (1997) Contaminated soils. Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of trace elements, May 15–19, 1995. INRA-Paris, Versailles 78,026, FranceGoogle Scholar
  78. Rahman SH, Khanam D, Adyel TM, Islam MS, Ahsan MA, Akbor MA (2012) Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Agricultural Soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), Bangladesh: Implication of Seasonal Variation and Indices. Appl. Sci. 2:584–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rahman SH, Neelormi S, Tareq SM (2008) Environmental impact assessments of textile and dyeing industries on ecosystem of Karnopara canal at Savar, Bangladesh. Jahangirnagar Univ J Sci 31:9–32Google Scholar
  80. Rao R, Thanikaivelan P, Sreeram K, Nair BU (2002) Green route for the utilization of Chrome shaving (Chromium-containing solid waste) in Tanning industry. Environ Sci Tech 36:1372–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reboredo F (1992) Cadmium Accumulation by Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen. A Seasonal Study, Marine. Environ Res 13:17–29Google Scholar
  82. Reeves DW (1997) The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems. Soil Till Res 43:131–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Saha JK, Subba A, Mandal R (2013) Integrated management of polluted soils for enhancing productivity and quality of crops. In: Approaches to plant stress and their management, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  84. Salako A, Sholeye O, Ayankoya S (2012) Oil spills and community health: implications for resource limited settings. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 4(9):145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Salgare SA, Acharekar C (1992) Effect of industrial pollution on growth and content of certain weeds. J Nat Conserv 4:1–6Google Scholar
  86. Sharma DC, Sharma CP (1993) Chromium uptake and its effects on growth and biological yield of wheat. Cereal Res Commun 21(4):317–332Google Scholar
  87. Shekar CHC, Sammaiah D, Shasthree T, Reddy KJ (2011) Effect of mercury on tomato growth and yield attributes. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2(2):358–364Google Scholar
  88. Shen ZY (2007) Study on the heavy metal forms and its bioaccumulation in Nanjing suburb soils. Hehai UniversityGoogle Scholar
  89. Sheoran IS, Singal HR, Singh R (1990) Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) Photosynth Res 23(3):345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Siebert S, Burke J, Faures JM, Frenken K, Hoogeveen J, Doll P, Portmann FT (2010) Groundwater use for irrigation–a global inventory. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 14:1863–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sopper WE, Seaker E, Bastian RK (1982) Land reclamatiom and biomass production with municipal wastewater and sludge. The Pennsylvania University Press, University Park, Pa, 16,802, p 524Google Scholar
  92. Stine MA, Weil RR (2002) The relationship between soil quality and crop productivity across three tillage systems in south central Honduras. Ame J Alter Agric 17(1):1–7Google Scholar
  93. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Plant physiology S. Associates, ed. Sunderland, Mass, USAGoogle Scholar
  94. Taha AA, El-Mahmoudi AS, El-Haddad IM (2004) Pollution sources and related environmental impacts in the new communities southeast Nile Delta, Egypt. Emirates J Eng Res 9(1):35–49Google Scholar
  95. Van Averbeke W, Denison J, Mnkeni PNS (2011) Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: a review of knowledge generated by the water research commission. Water SA 37:797–808Google Scholar
  96. Van Zyl, H. Bond-Smith M, Minter T, Botha T, Leiman A (2012) Financial provisions for rehabilitation and closure in South African mining: 797–Discussion Document on Challenges and Recommended Improvements., p. 108. Available at: http://awsassets.wwf.org.za/downloads/wwf_mining_8_aug
  97. Wang M, Zou J, Duan X, Jiang W, Liu D (2007) Cadmium accumulation and its effects on metal uptake in maize (Zeamays L.) Bioresour Technol 98(1):82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. World Bank (2005) World development report: a better investment climate for everyone.Google Scholar
  99. World Health Organization (1989) Health guideline for the use of waste water in Agriculture. WHO Publication, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  100. Xue ZJ, Liu SQ, Liu YL, Yan YL (2011) Health risk assessment of heavy metals for edible parts of vegetables grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburbs of Baoding City. China. Environ Monit Assess 11(4):2204–2206Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred O. M. Okorogbona
    • 1
  • Freddie D. N. Denner
    • 1
  • Lavhelesani R. Managa
    • 2
  • Tsunduka B. Khosa
    • 3
  • Khathutshelo Maduwa
    • 3
  • Patrick O. Adebola
    • 4
  • Stephen O. Amoo
    • 5
  • Hanyeleni M. Ngobeni
    • 5
  • Stanford Macevele
    • 3
  1. 1.Research and Development DepartmentRolfes Agri (Pty) Ltd-a member of Rolfes GroupPretoriaRepublic of South Africa
  2. 2.Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA)Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)PretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS)PretoriaSouth Africa
  4. 4.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture(IITA), Abuja station, Beside Old Water WorksAbujaNigeria
  5. 5.Agricultural Research Council(ARC)-Roodeplaat, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant (VOP), Kwamhlanga/ Moloto roadPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations