From Primary to Conventional Science

  • Boris Stilman
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 756)


This paper is focused on investigation of the structure of the Primary Language of the human brain as introduced by J. von Neumann in 1957. According to this hypothesis, the Primary Language empowers all the human symbolic languages and sciences. This is the first paper that provides the details of communication between the primary and conventional science and demonstrates examples of such communication. In our previous papers, we introduced the hypothesis that the Primary Language is the Language of Visual Streams (mental movies) that operate via multiple thought experiments. In the first part of this paper, we introduce various types of visual streams including communication and internal streams as well as mundane and science streams. The communication streams include expression and impression streams. The expression streams pass information from the internal streams to the outer world via converting it into the strings of symbols. The science streams may generate new knowledge because they include the discovery streams controlled by the Algorithm of Discovery (AD). The streams may initiate additional thought experiments, program them, and execute them in due course. The streams are focused employing various themes including proximity and mosaic reasoning. In the second part of this paper, we demonstrate a series of thought experiments that turn a piece of the primary science to the secondary one, the conventional science. Specifically, we introduce several internal visual streams that operate with the theme of Pictorial Linguistic Geometry (LG) as well as the streams of Linguistic LG. Then, we demonstrate how the AD constructs a series of expression streams that operate with a mix of the Pictorial and Linguistic LG, gradually approaching the pure Linguistic LG.


  1. 1.
    Botvinnik, M.: Chess, Computers, and Long-Range Planning. Springer, New York (1970)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Botvinnik, M.: Blok-skema algorithma igry v shahmaty (A Flow-Chart of the Algorithm for Playing Chess). Sovetskoe Radio (1972) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Botvinnik, M.: Computers in Chess: Solving Inexact Search Problems. Springer (1984)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown, J.: The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis Group, Routledge, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chargaff, E.: Structure and function of nucleic acids as cell constituents. Fed. Proc. 10, 654–659 (1951)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chomsky, N.: Syntactic Structures. Mouton de Gruyter (1957)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crick, F.H.C., Watson, J.D.: The complementary structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 223, 80–96 (1954)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Darwin, C.: The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Penguin, London (1968)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deheaene, S.: A few steps toward a science of mental life. Mind Brain Educ. 1(1), 28–47 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deheaene, S.: Edge In Paris, Talk at the Reality Club: Signatures of Consciousness (2009).
  11. 11.
    Ding, N., Melloni, L., Zhang, H., Tian, X., Poeppel, D.: Cortical tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures in connected speech. Nat. Neurosci. 19, 158–164 (2016).
  12. 12.
    Einstein, A.: On the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Annalen der Physik 17, 891 (1905) (in German)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Einstein, A.: Autobiographical Notes. Open Court, La Salle, IL (1991)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foppl, A.: Introduction to Maxwell’s Theory of Electricity. B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, in German (1894)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Galilei, G.: Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (trans.: Stillman Drake) (1632)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gleick, J.: Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hadamard, J.: The Mathematician’s Mind: The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1996)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iacoboni, M.: Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klein, G.: Seeing What Others Don’t: The Remarkable Ways to Gain Insights. PublicAffairs, a Member of the Perseus Books Group, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kosslyn, S., Thompson, W., Kim, I., Alpert, N.: Representations of mental images in primary visual cortex. Nature 378, 496–498 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Malthus, T.: An Essay on the Principle of Population. London, Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul’s Church-Yard (1798)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller, A.: Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art. Copernicus, an imprint of Springer (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nasar, S.: A Beautiful Mind. Touchstone, New York, NY (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nersessian, N.: Conceptual change: creativity, cognition, and culture. In: Meheus, J., Nicles, T. (eds.) Models of Discovery and Creativity, pp. 127–166. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pauling, L., Corey, R.B.: A proposed structure for the nucleic acids. Nature 171, 346–359 (1953); Proc. US Nat. Acad. Sci. 39, 84–97 (1953)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stilman, B.: Formation of the set of trajectory bundles. In: Botvinnik, M. M. (ed.) Appendix 1 to: On the Cybernetic Goal of Games, pp. 70–77. Soviet Radio, Moscow (1975) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stilman, B.: Ierarhia formalnikh grammatik dla reshenia prebornikh zadach (Hierarchy of Formal Grammars for Solving Search Problems). Technical Report, 105 pp., VNIIE, Moscow (1981) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stilman, B.: A formal language for hierarchical systems control. Int. J. Lang. Des. 1(4), 333–356 (1993)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stilman, B.: A linguistic approach to geometric reasoning. Int. J. Comput. Math. Appl. 26(7), 29–58 (1993)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stilman, B.: Network languages for complex systems. Int. J. Comput. Math. Appl. 26(8), 51–80 (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stilman, B.: Linguistic geometry for control systems design. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 1(2), 89–110 (1994)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stilman, B.: Translations of network languages. Int. J. Comput. Math. Appl. 27(2), 65–98 (1994)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stilman, B.: Deep search in linguistic geometry. In: Symposium on Linguistic Geometry and Semantic Control, Proceedings of the First World Congress on Intelligent Manufacturing: Processes and Systems, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, pp. 868–879 (1995)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stilman, B.: A linguistic geometry for 3D strategic planning. In: Proceedings of the 1995 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Emerging Information Technologies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA, pp. 279–295 (1995)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stilman, B.: Linguistic geometry tools generate optimal solutions. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Conceptual Structures—ICCS’96, Sydney, Australia, pp. 75–99 (1996)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stilman, B.: Managing search complexity in linguistic geometry. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 27(6), 978–998 (1997)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stilman, B.: Network languages for concurrent multi-agent systems. Int. J. Comput. Math. Appl. 34(1), 103–136 (1997)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stilman, B.: Linguistic Geometry: From Search to Construction, 416 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers (now Springer) (2000)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stilman, B.: linguistic geometry and evolution of intelligence. ISAST Trans. Comput. Intell. Syst. 3(2), 23–37 (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stilman, B.: Thought experiments in linguistic geometry. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Cognitive Technologies and Applications—COGNITIVE’2011, pp. 77–83, Rome, Italy (2011)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stilman, B.: Discovering the discovery of linguistic geometry. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 4(6), 575–594 (2012).
  42. 42.
    Stilman, B.: Discovering the discovery of the no-search approach. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 27 pp. (2012).
  43. 43.
    Stilman, B.: Discovering the discovery of the hierarchy of formal languages. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 25 pp. (2012).
  44. 44.
    Stilman, B.: Visual reasoning for discoveries. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 23 pp. (2013).
  45. 45.
    Stilman, B.: Mosaic reasoning for discoveries. J. Artif. Intell. Soft Comput. Res. 3(3), 147–173 (2013)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stilman, B.: Proximity reasoning for discoveries. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 31 pp. (2014).
  47. 47.
    Stilman, B.: The algorithm of discovery: making discoveries on demand. In: Kunifuji, S., et al. (eds.) Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 1–16. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (2016).
  48. 48.
    Stilman, B.: Discoveries on demand. Int. J. Des. Nat. Ecodyn. 11(4), 495–507 (2016)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stilman, B., Aldossary, M., The algorithm of discovery: programming the mosaic of the shortest trajectories. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 346–351 (2016)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stilman, B., Alharbi, N.: Towards the algorithm of discovery: mosaic reasoning for the discovery of the genetic code. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 353–363 (2016)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: Winning strategies for robotic wars: defense applications of linguistic geometry. Artif. Life Robot. 4(3) (2000)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: Knowledge acquisition and strategy generation with LG wargaming tools. Int. J. Comput. Intell. Appl. 2(4), 385–409 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: Strategies in Large Scale Problems, Chapter 3.3. In: Kott and McEneaney (eds.) Adversarial Reasoning: Computational Approaches to Reading the Opponent’s Mind, pp. 251–285 (2007)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: Linguistic geometry: the age of maturity. J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform. 14(6), 684–699 (2010)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: Revisiting history with linguistic geometry. ISAST Trans. Comput. Intell. Syst. 2(2), 22–38 (2010)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stilman, B., Yakhnis, V., Umanskiy, O.: The primary language of ancient battles. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 2(3), 157–176 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Thomson, G.: The Inspiration of Science. Oxford University Press, London (1961)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ulam, S.: Adventures of a Mathematician. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, NY (1976)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Volchenkov, N.: Interpreter of context-free controlled programmed grammars with parameters in Voprosy Kibernetiky: Intellektualnie banky dannikh (Proceedings on Cybernetics: Intelligent Data Banks), pp. 147–157. USSR Academy of Sciences, Scientific Board on Complex Problem Cybernetics (1979) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Von Neumann, J.: The Computer and the Brain. Yale University Press (1958)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Watson, J.D.: The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Scribner Classics Edition (1996). Atheneum, New York (1968)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Watson, J.D., Crick, F.H.C.: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171, 737–738 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watson, J.D., Crick, F.H.C.: The structure of DNA. In: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 18, pp. 123–131 (1953)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  2. 2.STILMAN Advanced StrategiesDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations