Fixator-Norator Pair Based Design of Analog Circuits

  • R. Rohith Krishnan
  • S. Krishnakumar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 479)


An approach towards the design and analysis of analog circuits is presented in this chapter. Fixator-Norator Pair (FNP), which is a combination of nullor plus sources, is the key element in this technique. A brief explanation about the possible realizations of FNPs is introduced in this chapter, which is followed by the use of FNPs in source allocation, source transformation, and biasing design. Second section deals with the design of analog integrated circuits based on FNPs. The design is primarily adhered with the design of active loads and/or current mirrors for satisfying the requirements of a given amplifier circuit. Feedback is an integral part of many analog circuits, so that the design automation of feedback networks is advantageous; which is also covered in this chapter. Finally, the complete AC performance design case is considered and it is a two-step process. FNP along with the linear equivalent model of the target circuit together does the first step, which is the design for input and output resistance and gain. The second step performs the design for bandwidth, i.e., mainly the cut-off frequencies. This is based on Bode plot analysis, which requires a reference circuit having the same frequency response as that of the desired one. All the proposed techniques are proved with the help of example circuits so that the reader can better understand the proposed method.


  1. 1.
    Hashemian R (2012) Application of fixators-norator pairs in designing active loads and current mirrors in analog integrated circuits. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst 20(12):2220–2231Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hashemian R (2014) Fixator-norator pair versus direct analytical tools in performing analog circuit designs. IEEE Trans Circ Syst II 61(8):569–573Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rohith Krishnan R, Krishnakumar S (2017) An approach towards design of analog integrated circuits based on fixator–norator pair. J Circ Syst Comp 26(6): 1750100(1–19)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Binu D, Kariyappa BS (2017) A survey on fault diagnosis of analog circuits: taxonomy and state of the art. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) 73(3):68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pierzchała M, Fakhfakh M (2014) Symbolic analysis of nullor-based circuits with the two-graph technique. Circ Syst Signal Process 33(4):1053–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Soliman AM, Saad RA (2010) The voltage mirror—current mirror pair as a universal element. Int J Circ Theor Appl 38(8):787–795zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tlelo-Cuautle E et al (2010) Symbolic analysis of analog circuits containing voltage mirrors and current mirrors. Analog Integr Circ Signal Process 65(1):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ozoguz S et al (2001) Derivation of low-sensitivity current-mode CCII-based filters. IEE Proc Circ Devices Syst 148(3):115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gadjeva ED, Gadzhev NG (2012) A nullor approach to computer-aided analogue circuit diagnosis. Inverse Probl Sci Eng 20(1):127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin WC et al (2013) Symbolic analysis of active device containing differencing voltage or current characteristics. Microelectronics J 44(1):354–358Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tlelo Cuautle E et al (2012) Symbolic nodal analysis of analog integrated circuits using pathological elements. In IEEE 10th International Conference on New Circuits and Systems Conference (NEWCAS), Montreal, QC, pp 161–164Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fakhfakh M, Tlelo Cuautle E, Fernandez FV (eds) (2012) Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis. Bentham Science Publishers, SharjahGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Verhoeven CJ et al (2003) Structured electronic design: negative-feedback amplifers. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hashemian R (2010) Local biasing and the use of nullator-norator pairs in analog circuits designs. VLSI Des.
  15. 15.
    Rashid MH (2011) Microelectronic circuits: analysisand design. Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT 06902, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics, STASMahatma Gandhi University Regional CentreEdappallyIndia

Personalised recommendations