Applications of the Voltage Mirror-Current Mirror in Realizing Active Building Blocks

  • Ahmed M. Soliman
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 479)


In this chapter four alternative realizations of the nullator using a single VM or two VMs are summarized. Similarly four alternative realizations of the norator using a single CM or two CMs are also demonstrated. It is also shown that the VM-CM pair can be used to realize a Nullor, A Voltage Op Amp, A Current Op amp, Voltage follower (VF), Voltage Inverter (VI), Current follower (CF), current Inverter (CI), Current Conveyors CCII+, CCII-, ICCII+ and an ICCII- without the use of any external resistors. The use of the VM-CM pair with additional resistors to realize the family of controlled sources, transconductance amplifiers and other active building blocks using NAM expansion is included. Finally it is shown the Nullator-CM pair as well as its adjoint which is the VM-Norator pair can also be used as Universal building blocks.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronics and Communication Engineering DepartmentCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

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