Nullor-Based Negative-Feedback Memristive Amplifiers: Symbolic-Oriented Modelling and Design

  • Arturo Sarmiento-Reyes
  • José Balaam Alarcón-Angulo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 479)


The memristor as an actual device was introduced in April 2008 at the HP labs, while its original foundations are dated from 1971 when Prof. L. O. Chua devised the memristor as the fourth basic circuit element. Nowadays, the memristor has captured most of the attention not only from circuit theoreticians, but also from circuit designers because the widely open possibilities of the device in applications where it co-exists with traditional electronics. A particular case of such an application arises when the memristor is combined with the nullor in order to achieve a memristive input-output transfer function. In this chapter, we firstly introduce a fully symbolic model of the memristor that is used for the symbolic analysis of the amplifier configurations. It is important to point out the symbolic nature of our memristor model in contrast with other models that are of numerical nature or implemented in a macro-equivalent. Secondly, the four single-loop negative-feedback nullor-based amplifier configurations are introduced, and their corresponding analytic transfer functions are generated and characterised. Similarly, the noise and harmonic distortion analyses are carried out on the four configurations yielding fully symbolic expressions for both, the output equivalent noise and the harmonic components. In a next step, the nullor is synthesised by using a memistor, which is a combination of two memristors connected back-to-back. Finally, a transmemristance amplifier is used as a case study of design when the nullor is substituted by a memistor. Along the manuscript, the resulting expressions from the mathematical analyses are verified with HSPICE simulations that incorporate the memristor model from a description in the VERILOG-A language.


Symbolic modeling Memristor models Nullor-based memristor amplifiers Memristor Memistor 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arturo Sarmiento-Reyes
    • 1
  • José Balaam Alarcón-Angulo
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronics DepartmentINAOEPueblaMexico

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