Experimental and Practical Application of Fern Somatic Embryogenesis

  • Anna Mikuła
  • Małgorzata Grzyb
  • Karolina Tomiczak
  • Jan Jarosław Rybczyński


Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a fascinating developmental program that was first described for carrot 60 years ago. In 2015, the first report of SE in the Monilophyta was published for Cyathea delgadii Sternb. Using the data obtained for somatic embryo induction and development in this tree fern, we presented a new model system for studying early events in SE. Here, we summarize what is known of that model system, which requires a hormone-free medium to induce embryogenic competence. Special emphasis is placed on hormonal regulation of somatic-to-embryogenic transition and on the cytomorphological and proteomic changes that occur during early SE. Our research also reveals that SE is able to improve fern productivity to a much greater extent than can current conventional in vitro propagation methods for cryptogamic plants.


Cyathea delgadii Endogenous regulation In vitro culture Molecular aspects Tree fern 



Abscisic acid


Subunit acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase


L-ascorbate peroxidase




Phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase 1

DHQ synthase

3-dehydroquinate synthase


Glutamate dehydrogenase


Glutathione S-transferase


Indole-3-acetic acid


The mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 37


UDP-arabinose mutase


UDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose-reductase RHM1


Somatic embryogenesis


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Mikuła
    • 1
  • Małgorzata Grzyb
    • 1
  • Karolina Tomiczak
    • 1
  • Jan Jarosław Rybczyński
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental Botany, Polish Academy of SciencesBotanical Garden – Center for Biological Diversity Conservation in WarsawWarsawPoland

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