Morphogenic Events in Ferns: Single and Multicellular Explants In Vitro

  • Jan Jarosław Rybczyński
  • Karolina Tomiczak
  • Małgorzata Grzyb
  • Anna Mikuła


In spite of the recent description of somatic embryogenesis for ferns, there are a lot of evidences that the morphogenic potential of their cells was the objective of numerous studies. The chapter tries to give the summary of the information of morphogenic potential of both fern generations. The fern body provides a source of various explants, both single-celled and multicellular. Under various plant growth regulator regimes, plant regeneration occurs; however, it is stressed that for some of developmental stages, hormone-free medium is required. For numerous species, the system of sporophyte regeneration was presented and discussed. The attention is paid for callus and cell suspension, and their initiation and culture are maintained as the stage of the great potential which might be explored for fern somatic cell manipulation. Protoplasts are the objective of somatic cell genetic manipulation in plants; however, for ferns the number of papers involving protoplast isolation and their subsequent culture is scant. Independently, the attention is paid for green globular bodies, multicellular structures with unlimited shoot regeneration potential.


Callus Green globular bodies In vitro culture Morphogenesis Protoplast 


0.5MS medium

½ Strength MS medium


2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid


2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)


Active charcoal




Casein hydrolysate


Coconut milk

CPW solution

Mineral salt complex (Frearson et al. 1973)


Gibberellic acid


Jasmonic acid


Murashige Fern Multiplication Medium

MS medium

Murashige and Skoog medium (1962)


α-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Somatic embryo


Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase gene


Thidiazuron-1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Jarosław Rybczyński
    • 1
  • Karolina Tomiczak
    • 1
  • Małgorzata Grzyb
    • 1
  • Anna Mikuła
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental BotanyPolish Academy of Sciences, Botanical Garden – Center for Biological Diversity Conservation in WarsawWarsawPoland

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