The Neglected Problem of the Neurofeedback Learning (In)Ability

  • Rafał Łukasz Szewczyk
  • Marta Ratomska
  • Marta Jaśkiewicz
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 720)


Neurofeedback (NFB) as one of the biofeedback modalities has a very wide range of applications. Surprisingly, despite of its popularity, research on its effectiveness in many cases remains inconclusive. What is more, there are studies that have even brought contradictory results. For instance, the need to use individualised vs standard neurofeedback protocol is still under debate. In this article we point out the problem of the neurofeedback effectiveness underestimation which might result from the neglected neurofeedback learning inability phenomenon (also called as BCI-illiteracy). We suggest that there are three preconditions of the neurofeedback loop establishment, and subsequently, we reflect on their potential obstacles. We conclude by encouraging neurofeedback researchers and practitioners to pay more attention to observing and reporting the problem of the neurofeedback learning inability, as it is crucial factor for determining its real effectiveness.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafał Łukasz Szewczyk
    • 1
  • Marta Ratomska
    • 2
  • Marta Jaśkiewicz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cognitive PsychologySWPS University of Social Sciences and HumanitiesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Experimental PsychologyThe John Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland

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