Advertisement

Spectroscopic Characterisation of Multiferroic Interfaces

  • M.-A. Husanu
  • C. A. F. Vaz
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 266)

Abstract

In this chapter we discuss the capabilities of X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies for the investigation of the electronic, magnetic and electric properties of multiferroic materials and heterostructures. As complementary techniques providing element selective information on both occupied and empty states, their combination delivers a comprehensive picture of the chemical state of individual species, magnetic moments, bulk and surface band structure, and local atomic environment at the interface between dissimilar materials. By directly probing the electronic structure at the atomic level, unique insights can be learned about the mechanisms responsible for the magnetoelectric couplings in this fascinating class of materials.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very thankful to the authors that allowed reproduction of their work here. M.-A.H. was supported by the Swiss Excellence Scholarship Grant ESKAS-No. 2015.0257 and in part by the Romanian UEFISCDI Agency under Contract No. PN-II-ID-JRP-2011-2.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Kimura, T. Goto, H. Shintani, K. Ishizaka, Y. Tokura, Nature 426, 55 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Lawes, A.B. Harris, T. Kimura, N. Rogado, R.J. Cava, A. Aharony, O. Entin-Wohlman, T. Yildirim, M. Kenzelmann, C. Broholm, A.P. Ramirez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 087205 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Kimura, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 387 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Tokura, Y. Tomioka, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 1 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Dagotto, T. Hotta, A. Moreo, Phys. Rep. 344, 1 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.J.A. Molegraaf, J. Hoffman, C.A.F. Vaz, S. Gariglio, D. van der Marel, C.H. Ahn, J.-M. Triscone, Adv. Mater. 21, 3470 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.D. Burton, E.Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. B 80, 174406 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J. Hoffman, Y. Segal, J.W. Reiner, R.D. Grober, Z. Zhang, C.H. Ahn, F.J. Walker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127202 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.A. Smolenskiǐ, I.E. Chupis, Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 475 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Pimenov, A.A. Mukhin, VYu. Ivanov, V.D. Travkin, A.M. Balbashov, A. Loidl, Nat. Phys. 2, 97 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.B. Sushkov, R.V. Aguilar, S. Park, S.-W. Cheong, H.D. Drew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 027202 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Katsura, A.V. Balatsky, N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 027203 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Pimenov, A.M. Shuvaev, A.A. Mukhin, A. Loidl, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 434209 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.M. Shuvaev, A.A. Mukhin, A. Pimenov, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 113201 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Takahashi, R. Shimano, Y. Kaneko, H. Murakawa, Y. Tokura, Nat. Phys. 8, 121 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Eerenstein, N.D. Mathur, J.F. Scott, Nature 442, 759 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Zubko, S. Gariglio, M. Gabay, P. Ghosez, J.-M. Triscone, Ann. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 2, 141 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Editorial. The interface is still the device. Nat. Mater. 11, 91 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Chen, Q. Qiao, M.S.J. Marshall, A.B. Georgescu, A. Gulec, P.J. Phillips, R.F. Klie, F.J. Walker, C.H. Ahn, S. Ismail-Beigi, Nano Lett. 14, 4965 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.A.F. Vaz, F.J. Walker, C.H. Ahn, S.S. Ismail-Beigi, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 27, 123001 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.G. Schlom, L.-Q. Chen, C.-B. Eom, K.M. Rabe, S.K. Streiffer, J.-M. Triscone, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 589 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J.A.C. Bland, G. Lauhoff, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 056501 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.A. McKee, F.J. Walker, M.F. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.A. McKee, F.J. Walker, M.F. Chisholm, Science 293, 468 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.A. Muller, Nat. Mater. 8, 263 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Tan, S. Turner, E. Yücelen, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 107602 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N.A. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6694 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Ramesh, N.A. Spaldin, Nat. Mater. 6, 21 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Zhao, A. Scholl, F. Zavaliche, K. Lee, M. Barry, A. Doran, M.P. Cruz, Y.H. Chu, C. Ederer, N.A. Spaldin, R.R. Das, D.M. Kim, S.H. Baek, C.B. Eom, R. Ramesh, Nat. Mater. 5, 823 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.Y. Son, G.B. Kim, C.H. Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 846, 4971 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Hanamura, Y. Tanabe, Phase Transit. 79, 957 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishiyama, Solid State Commun. 87, 581 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Medrano, M. Schlenker, J. Baruchel, J. Espeso, Y. Miyamoto, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1185 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Ederer, N. Spaldin, Phys. Rev. B 74, 024102 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Meyer, D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 65, 104111 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.I. Khomskii, Physics 2, 20 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    I.E. Dzialoshinskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 5, 1259 (1957)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Moriya, Phys. Rev. 120, 91 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S.-W. Cheong, M. Mostovoy, Nat. Mater. 6, 13 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K.F. Wang, J.M. Liu, Z.F. Ren, Adv. Phys. 58, 321 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Catalan, J.F. Scott, Adv. Mater. 21, 2463 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Kimura, Annu. Rev. Condens. Mater. Phys. 3, 93 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Fontcuberta, C. R. Phys. 16, 204 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Dong, J.-M. Liu, S.-W. Cheong, Z. Ren, Adv. Phys. 64, 519 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.M. Rondinelli, M. Stengel, N.A. Spaldin, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 46 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Srinivasan, R.C.P. DeVreugd, C.S. Flattery, V.M. Laletsin, N. Paddubnaya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2550 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Zhai, S. Dong, Z. Xing, J. Li, D. Viehland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 083507 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Miclea, C. Tanasoiu, L. Amarande, C.F. Miclea, C. Plavitu, M. Cioangher, L. Trupina, C.T. Miclea, T. Tanasoiu, M. Susu, J. Opt. Adv. Mater. 12, 272 (2010)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Zheng, J. Wang, S.E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S.R. Shinde, S.B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D.G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, R. Ramesh, Science 303, 661 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    C.-W. Nan, G. Liu, Y. Lin, H. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197203 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. Garcia, M. Bibes, L. Bocher, S. Valencia, F. Kronast, A. Crassous, X. Moya, S. Enouz-Vedrenne, A. Gloter, D. Imhoff, C. Deranlot, N.D. Mathur, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, A. Barthelemy, Science 327, 1106 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Ryu, J.H. Park, H.M. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142910 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.P. Singh, W. Prellier, L. Mechin, C. Simon, B. Raveau, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 024105 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A.D. Caviglia, S. Gariglio, N. Reyren, D. Jaccard, T. Schneider, M. Gabay, S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, J. Mannhart, J.-M. Triscone, Nature 456, 624 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    W. Eerenstein, M. Wiora, J.L. Prieto, J.F. Scott, N.D. Mathur, Nat. Mater. 6, 348 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J. Hoffman, C.H. Ahn, R. Ramesh, Adv. Mater. 22, 2900 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 333201 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C.A.F. Vaz, U. Staub, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 6731 (2013)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J.J. Wang, J.M. Hu, J. Ma, J.X. Zhang, L.Q. Chen, C.W. Nan, Sci. Rep. 4, 7507 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Ghidini, R. Pellicelli, J.L. Prieto, X. Moya, J. Soussi, J. Briscoe, S. Dunn, N.D. Mathur, Nat. Commun. 4, 1453 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    L. Gerhard, T.K. Yamada, T. Balashov, A.F. Takacs, R.J.H. Wesselink, M. Dne, M. Fechner, S. Ostanin, A. Ernst, I. Mertig, W. Wulfhekel, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 792 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. Gerhard, R.J.H. Wesselink, S. Ostanin, A. Ernst, W. Wulfhekel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 167601 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. Imada, A. Fujimori, Y. Tokura, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1039 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    J.M.D. Coey, M. Viret, S. von Molnár, Adv. Phys. 48, 167 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    N. Tsuda, K. Nasu, A. Fujimori, K. Siratori, Electronic Conduction in Oxides, 2nd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    E.L. Nagaev, Phys. Rep. 346, 387 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. Ziese, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65, 143 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. Preziosi, M. Alexe, D. Hesse, M. Salluzzo, Phys. Rev. Lett 115, 157401 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    H. Lu, T.A. George, Y. Wang, I. Ketsman, J.D. Burton, C.-W. Bark, S. Ryu, D.J. Kim, J. Wang, C. Binek, P.A. Dowben, A. Sokolov, C.-B. Eom, E.Y. Tsymbal, A. Gruverman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 232904 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P.M. Leufke, R. Kruk, R.A. Brand, H. Hahn, Phys. Rev. B 87, 094416 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    T.L. Meyer, A. Herklotz, V. Lauter, J.W. Freeland, J. Nichols, S. Lee, E.-J. Guo, T.Z. Ward, N. Balke, S.V. Kalinin, M.R. Fitzsimmons, H.N. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 94, 174432 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    X. Hong, A. Posadas, C.H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 142501 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. Hoffman, X. Hong, C.H. Ahn, Nanotechnology 22, 254014 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D. Pantel, S. Goetze, D. Hesse, M. Alexe, Nat. Mater. 11, 289 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Y.W. Yin, J.D. Burton, Y.-M. Kim, A.Y. Borisevich, S.J. Pennycook, S.M. Yang, T.W. Noh, A. Gruverman, X.G. Li, E.Y. Tsymbal, Q. Li, Nat. Mater. 12, 397 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Y. Tokura, N. Nagaosa, Science 288, 462 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J.P. Velev, C.-G. Duan, J.D. Burton, A. Smogunov, M.K. Niranjan, E. Tosatti, S.S. Jaswal, E.Y. Tsymbal, Nano Lett. 9, 427 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. Frst, R.I. Tobey, S. Wall, H. Bromberger, V. Khanna, A.L. Cavalieri, Y.-D. Chuang, W.S. Lee, R. Moore, W.F. Schlotter, J.J. Turner, O. Krupin, M. Trigo, H. Zheng, J.F. Mitchell, S.S. Dhesi, J.P. Hill, A. Cavalleri, Phys. Rev. B 84, 241104(R) (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    D. Pesquera, G. Herranz, A. Barla, E. Pellegrin, F. Bondino, E. Magnano, F. Sanchez, J. Fontcuberta, Nat. Commun. 3, 1189 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    E.J. Moon, R. Colby, Q. Wang, E. Karapetrova, C.M. Schleputz, M.R. Fitzsimmons, S.J. May, Nature. Commun. 5, 5710 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    B. Cui, C. Song, H. Mao, H. Wu, F. Li, J. Peng, G. Wang, F. Zeng, F. Pan, Adv. Mater. 27, 6651 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    J.M. Pruneda, V. Ferrari, R. Rurali, P.B. Littlewood, N.A. Spaldin, E. Artacho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 226101 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    W.H. Meiklejohn, C.P. Bean, Phys. Rev. 102, 1413 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    W.H. Meiklejohn, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1328 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. Nogués, I.K. Schuller, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 192, 203 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    S. Picozzi, A. Continenza, A.J. Freeman, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4723 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    S.M. Wu, S.A. Cybart, D. Yi, J.M. Parker, R. Ramesh, R.C. Dynes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 067202 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Quindeau, I. Fina, X. Marti, G. Apachitei, P. Ferrer, C. Nicklin, E. Pippel, D. Hesse, M. Alexe, Sci. Rep. 5, 9749 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    C.A.F. Vaz, E.I. Altman, V.E. Henrich, Phys. Rev. B 81, 104428 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. Picozzi, A. Continenza, A., J. Freeman. Phys. Rev. B 69, 09423 (2004)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. Curiale, M. Granada, H.E. Troiani, R.D. Sanchez, A.G. Leyva, P. Levy, K. Samwer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 043106 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    K. Nakamura, Y. Kato, T. Akiyama, T. Ito, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 047206 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    P. Borisov, A. Hochstrat, X. Chen, W. Kleemann, C. Binek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117203 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    X. He, N. Wu, A.N. Caruso, E. Vescovo, K.D. Belashchenko, P.A. Dowben, C. Binek, Nat. Mater. 9, 579 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    M.B. Holcomb, S. Polisetty, A.F. Rodríguez, V. Gopalan R. Ramesh, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 26, 1230004 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. Ramesh, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 20120437 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. Guennou, M. Viret, J. Kreisel, C. R. Phys. 16, 182 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    V. Garcia, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, C. R. Phys. 16, 168 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    H. Bea, M. Bibes, S. Cherifi, F. Nolting, B. Warot-Fonrose, S. Fusil, G. Herranz, C. Deranlot, E. Jacquet, K. Bouzehouane, A. Barthélémy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242114 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    S. Tanuma, C.J. Powel, D.R. Penn, Surf. Interface Anal. 17, 911 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    V.N. Strocov, M. Kobayashi, X. Wang, L.L. Lev, J. Krempasky, V.V. Rogalev, T. Schmitt, C. Cancellieri, M.L. Reinle-Schmitt, Synchr. Rad. News 27, 31 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    S. Mukherjee, P. K. Santra, and D. D. Sarma. Depth profiling and internal structure determination of low dimensional materials using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES), number 59 in Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 2015), p. 309Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    A.X. Gray, C. Papp, S. Ueda, B. Balke, Y. Yamashita, L. Plucinski, J. Minr, J. Braun, E.R. Ylvisaker, C.M. Schneider, W.E. Pickett, H. Ebert, K. Kobayashi, C.S. Fadley, Nat. Mater. 10, 759 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Y. Kayanuma, Recoil effects in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES), number 59 in Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 2015), p. 175Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    A.X. Gray, J. Minar, S. Ueda, P.R. Stone, Y. Yamashita, J. Fujii, J. Braun, L. Plucinski, C.M. Schneider, G. Panaccione, H. Ebert, O.D. Dubon, K. Kobayashi, C.S. Fadley, Nat. Mater. 11, 957 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    F. de Groot, J. Vogel, Fundamentals of X-ray absorption and dichroism: the multiple approach, in Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy, ed. by F. Hippert, E. Geissler, J.L. Hodeau, E. Lelièvre-Berna, J.-R. Regnard (Springer, Dordrecht, 2006), p. 3Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    J. Stöhr, H.C. Siegmann, Magnetism (Springer, Berlin, 2006)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Salluzzo, G. Ghiringhelli, Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant X-ray inelastic scattering on oxides and their heterostructures, in Spectroscopy of TMO interfaces, ed. by C. Cancellieri, V.N. Strocov (Springer, Berlin, 2017), p. XXXGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    C.A.F. Vaz, C. Moutafis, C. Quitmann, J. Raabe. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 083114 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    C.G. Duan, S.S. Jaswal, E.Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 047201 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    G. Radaelli, D. Petti, E. Plekhanov, I. Fina, P. Torelli, B.R. Salles, M. Cantoni, C. Rinaldi, D. Gutierrez, G. Panaccione, M. Varela, S. Picozzi, J. Fontcuberta, R. Bertacco, Nat. Commun. 5, 3404 (2013)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    G. Radaelli, M. Cantoni, L. Lijun, M. Espabodi, R. Bertacco, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 063501 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    F.J. Scott. Ferroelectric Memories (Springer, Heidelberg, 2000)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    A.J. Moulson, J.M. Herbert, Electroceramics: Materials and Properties Applications, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    L. Li, P.A. Salvador, G.S. Rother, Nanoscale 6, 24 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    D. Cao, C. Wang, F. Zheng, L. Fang, W. Dong, A.K. Tagantsev, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1287 (2001)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    A. Chanthbouala, A. Crassous, V. Garcia, K. Bouzehouane, S. Fusil, X. Moya, J. Allibe, B. Dlubak, J. Grollier, S. Xavier, C. Deranlot, A. Moshar, R. Proksch, N.D. Mathur, M. Bibes, A. Barthlmy, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 101 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    A. Gruverman, D. Wu, H. Lu, Y. Wang, H.W. Jang, C.M. Folkman, M.Y. Zhuravlev, D. Felker, M. Rzchowski, C.-B. Eomm, E.Y. Tsymbal, Nano Lett. 9, 3539 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    S. Takatani, M. Hiroshi, K.-A. Keiko, K. Torii, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7784 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    J.P. Velev, C.-G. Duan, K.D. Belashchenko, S.S. Jaswal, E.Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 137201 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    R. Schafranek, S. Payan, M. Maglione, A. Klein, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195310 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    A.G. Boni, I. Pintilie, L. Pintilie, D. Preziosi, H. Deniz, M. Alexe, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 224103 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    S.A. Chambers, Y. Liang, Z. Yu, R. Droopad, J. Ramdani, K. Eisenbeiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1662 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    N.G. Apostol, C.M. Teodorescu, Band bending at metal-semiconductor interfaces. ferroelectric surfaces and metal-ferroelectric interfaces investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy, in Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization (Springer, Heidelberg, 2015), p. 405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    L.E. Stoflea, N.G. Apostol, L. Trupina, C.M. Teodorescu, J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 14386 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    N.G. Apostol, L.E. Stoflea, G.A. Lungu, C. Chirila, L. Trupina, R.F. Negrea, C. Ghica, L. Pintilie, C.M. Teodorescu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 415 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    E. Kroger, A. Petraru, A. Quer, R. Soni, M. Kallane, N.A. Pertsev, H. Kohlstedt, K. Rossnagel, Phys. Rev. B 93, 235415 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    D.G. Popescu, M.A. Husanu, L. Trupina, L. Hrib, L. Pintilie, A. Barinov, S. Lizzit, P. Lacovig, C.M. Teodorescu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 509 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    D.G. Popescu, N. Barrett, C. Chirila, I. Pasuk, M.A. Husanu, Phys. Rev. B 92, 235442 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    F. Chen, A. Klein, Phys. Rev. B 86, 094105 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    J.E. Rault, G. Agnus, T. Maroutian, V. Pillard, P. Lecoeur, G. Niu, B. Vilquin, M.G. Silly, A. Bendounan, F. Sirotti, N. Barrett, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155146 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    M.A. Husanu, D.G. Popescu, L. Hrib, C. Chirila, C.M. Teodorescu, L. Pintilie, F. Bisti, V.N. Strocov. unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    S.M. Wu, S.A. Cybart, P. Yu, M.D. Rossell, J.X. Zhang, R. Ramesh, R.C. Dynes, Nat. Mater. 9, 756 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    J. Krempaský, V.N. Strocov, L. Patthey, P.R. Willmott, R. Herger, M. Falub, P. Blaha, M. Hoesch, V. Petrov, M.C. Richter, O. Heckmann, K. Hricovini, Phys. Rev. B 77, 165120 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    L.L. Lev, J. Krempaský, U. Staub, V.A. Rogalev, T. Schmitt, M. Shi, P. Blaha, A.S. Mishchenko, A.A. Veligzhanin, Y.V. Zubavichus, M.B. Tsetlin, H. Volfov, J. Braun, J. Minr, V.N. Strocov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 237601 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    M. Kobayashi, I. Muneta, Y. Takeda, Y. Harada, A. Fujimori, J. Krempasky, T. Schmitt, S. Ohya, M. Tanaka, M. Oshima, V.N. Strocov, Phys. Rev. B 89, 205204 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    J.M. Luttinger, Phys. Rev. 119, 1153 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    B.K. Agarwal, X-ray Spectroscopy (Springer, Berlin, 1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    P.M. Bertsch, D.B. Hunter, Chem. Rev. 101, 1809 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    F.M.F. de Groot, Chem. Rev. 101, 1779 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    H. Wende, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 2105 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    B.T. Thole, P. Carra, F. Sette, G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1943 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    P. Carra, B.T. Thole, M. Altarelli, X. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 694 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    D. Yi, J. Liu, S. Okamoto, S. Jagannatha, Y.-C. Chen, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, E. Arenholz, R. Ramesh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 127601 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    P. Yu, J.-S. Lee, S. Okamoto, M.D. Rossell, M. Huijben, C.-H. Yang, Q. He, J.X. Zhang, S.Y. Yang, M.J. Lee, Q.M. Ramasse, R. Erni, Y.-H. Chu, D.A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, L.W. Martin, R. Ramesh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 027201 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    S.S. Rao, J.T. Prater, F. Wu, C.T. Shelton, J.-P. Maria, J. Narayan, Nano Lett. 13, 5814 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J.A. Moyer, D. Arena, C.H. Ahn, V.E. Henrich, Phys. Rev. B 90, 024414 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    T.H.E. Lahtinen, J.O. Tuomi, S. van Dijken, Adv. Mater. 23, 3187 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    T.H.E. Lahtinen, K.J.A. Franke, S. van Dijken, Sci. Rep. 2, 258 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    K.J.A. Franke, B. Van de Wiele, Y. Shirahata, S.J. H”am”al”ainen, T. Taniyama, S. van Dijken, Phys. Rev. X 5, 011010 (2015)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    J. van Suchtelen, Philips Res. Repts 27, 28 (1972)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    J. van den Boomgaard, D.R. Terrel, R.A.J. Born, H.F.J.I. Giller, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1705 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    A.M.J.G. van Run, D.R. Terrell, J.H. Scholing, J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1710 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S.Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D.G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, R. Ramesh, Nano Lett. 5, 1793 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    C. Schmitz-Antoniak, D. Schmitz, P. Borisov, F.M.F. de Groot, S. Stienen, A. Warland, B. Krumme, R. Feyerherm, E. Dudzik, W. Kleemann, H. Wende, Nat. Commun. 4, 2051 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Y.-J. Chen, Y.-H. Hsieh, S.-C. Liao, Z. Hu, M.-J. Huang, W.-C. Kuo, Y.-Y. Chin, T.-M. Uen, J.-Y. Juang, C.-H. Lai, H.-J. Lin, C.-T. Chena, Y.-H. Chu, Nanoscale 5, 4449 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J. Hoffman, A.-B. Posadas, C.H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 022504 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    V.H. Babu, R.K. Govind, K.-M. Schindler, M. Welke, R. Denecke, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 113901 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    C.-W. Nan, M.I. Bichurin, S. Dong, D. Viehland, G. Srinivasan, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 031101 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    G. Srinivasan, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40, 153 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    R.C. Kambale, D.-Y. Jeong, J. Ryu, Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2012, 824643 (2012)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    B.Y. Wang, H.T. Wang, S.B. Singh, Y.C. Shao, Y.F. Wang, C.H. Chuang, P.H. Yeh, J.W. Chiou, C.W. Pao, H.M. Tsai, H.J. Lin, J.F. Lee, C.Y. Tsai, W.F. Hsieh, M.-H. Tsaif, W.F. Pong, RSC Adv. 3, 7884 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    V.K. Verma, V.R. Singh, K. Ishigami, G. Shibata, T. Harano, T. Kadono, A. Fujimori, F.-H. Chang, H.-J. Lin, D.-J. Huang, C.T. Chen, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. Lin, C.-W. Nan, A. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 89, 115128 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    M. Etier, C. Schmitz-Antoniak, S. Salamon, H. Trivedi, Y. Gao, A. Nazrabi, J. Landers, D. Gautam, M. Winterer, D. Schmitz, H. Wende, V.V. Shvartsmana, D.C. Lupascu, Acta Mater. 90, 1 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    G. Schütz, W. Wagner, W. Wilhelm, P. Kienle, R. Zeller, R. Frahm, G. Materlik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 737 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    C.A.F. Vaz, C. Moutafis, M. Buzzi, J. Raabe, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 189, 1 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    C.A.F. Vaz, Y. Segal, J. Hoffman, R.D. Grober, F.J. Walker, C.H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 042506 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    P.P. Kirichok, G.S. Podval’nykh, L.M. Letyuk, Russ. Phys. J. 14, 983 (1971)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    P.P. Kirichok, A.V. Kopaev, V.P. Pashchenko, Rus. Phys. J. 28, 849 (1985)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    M. Sikora, C. Kapusta, K. Knížek, Z. Jirák, C. Autret, M. Borowiec, C.J. Oates, V. Procházka, D. Rybicki, D. Zajac, Phys. Rev. B 73, 094426 (2006)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    G. Subías, J. García, M.G. Proietti, J. Blasco. Phys. Rev. B 56, 8183 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    M. Croft, D. Sills, M. Greenblatt, C. Lee, S.-W. Cheong, K.V. Ramanujachary, D. Tran, Phys. Rev. B 55, 8726 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    F. Bridges, C.H. Booth, M. Anderson, G.H. Kwei, J.J. Neumeier, J. Snyder, J. Mitchell, J.S. Gardner, E. Brosha, Phys. Rev. B 63, 214405 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    T. Shibata, B.A. Bunker, J.F. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. B 68, 024103 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    R. Bindu, S.K. Pandey, A. Kumar, S. Khalid, A.V. Pimpale, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 6393 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    S.K. Pandey, R. Bindu, A. Kumar, S. Khalid, A.V. Pimpale, Pramana—J. Phys. 70, 359 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    C.A.F. Vaz, J. Hoffman, Y. Segal, M.S.J. Marshall, J.W. Reiner, Z. Zhang, R.D. Grober, F.J. Walker, C.H. Ahn, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 07D905 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    J.H. Park, J.-H. Lee, M.G. Kim, Y.K. Jeong, M.-A. Oak, H.M. Jang, H.J. Choi, J.F. Scott, Phys. Rev. B 81, 134401 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    J. Stöhr, H.A. Padmore, S. Anders, T. Stammler, M.R. Scheinfein, Surf. Rev. Lett. 5, 1297 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    F. Nolting, Magnetic imaging with X-rays, in Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation, volume 133, of Proceedings in Physics, ed. by E. Beaurepaire, et al. (Springer, Berlin, 2010), p. 345Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C.M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, Nature 467, 436 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    A.M. Maiden, G.R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, J.M. Rodenburg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, O. Bunk, Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    D.A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y.S. Meng, T. Warwick, L.L. Yang, H.A. Padmore, Nat. Photonics 8, 765 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    X. Shi, P. Fischer, V. Neu, D. Elefant, J.C.T. Lee, D.A. Shapiro, M. Farmand, T. Tyliszczak, H.-W. Shiu, S. Marchesini, S. Roy, S.D. Kevan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 094103 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    F. Buettner, M. Schneider, C.M. Guenther, C.A.F. Vaz, B. Laegel, D. Berger, S. Selve, M. Klaeui, S. Eisebitt, Opt. Express 21, 30563 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    F. Büttner, C. Moutafis, M. Schneider, B. Krüger, C.M. Günther, J. Geilhufe, C.V. Korff, C.K. Schmising, J. Mohanty, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, A. Bisig, M. Foerster, T. Schulz, C.A.F. Vaz, J.H. Franken, H.J.M. Swagten, M. Kläui, S. Eisebitt, Nat. Phys. 11, 225 (2015)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    A. Locatelli, E. Bauer, J. Phys. Condes. Matter 20, 093002 (2008)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    X.M. Cheng, D.J. Keavney, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 026501 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    R.M. Tromp, J.B. Hannonand, A.W. Ellis, W. Wan, A. Berghaus, O. Schaff, Ultramicroscopy 110, 852 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    R.M. Tromp, J.B. Hannon, W. Wan, A. Berghaus, O. Schaff, Ultramicroscopy 127, 25 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    R. Moubah, M. Elzo, S. El Moussaoui, D. Colson, N. Jaouen, R. Belkhou, M. Viret, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 042406 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    A. Sander, M. Christl, C.-T. Chiang, M. Alexe, W. Widdra, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 224102 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    S. Cherifi, R. Hertel, S. Fusil, H. Béa, K. Bouzehouane, J. Allibe, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4, 22 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Q. He, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, Y.-H. Chu, R. Ramesh, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 16, 216 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, A. Forget, M. Viret, A.M. Bataille, A. Gusakov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 227602 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, D. Zimoch, AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 705 (2010)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    A. Scholl, J. Stohr, J. Luning, J.W. Seo, J. Fompeyrine, H. Siegwart, J.P. Locquet, F. Nolting, S. Anders, E.E. Fullerton, M.R. Scheinfein, H.A. Padmore, Science 287, 1014 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    F. Nolting, A. Scholl, J. Stöhr, J.W. Seo, J. Fompeyrine, H. Siegwart, J.-P. Locquet, S. Anders, J. Lüning, E.E. Fullerton, M.F. Toney, M.R. Scheinfein, H.A. Padmore, Nature 405, 767 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    J. Lüning, F. Nolting, A. Scholl, H. Ohldag, J.W. Seo, J. Fompeyrine, J.-P. Locquet, J. Stöhr. Phys. Rev. B 84, 1174 (2004)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Y.-H. Chu, L.W. Martin, M.B. Holcomb, M. Gajek, S.-J. Han, Q. He, N. Balke, C.-H. Yang, D. Lee, W. Hu, Q. Zhan, P.-L. Yang, A. Fraile-Rodríguez, A. Scholl, S.X. Wang, R. Ramesh, Nat. Mater. 7, 478 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    R.V. Chopdekar, V.K. Malik, A. Fraile Rodríguez, L. Le Guyader, Y. Takamura, A. Scholl, D. Stender, C.W. Schneider, C. Bernhard, F. Nolting, L.J. Heyderman, Phys. Rev. B 86, 014408 (2012)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    M.K. Lee, T.K. Nath, C.B. Eom, M.C. Smoak, F. Tsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3547 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    R.V. Chopdekar, Y. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182506 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    H.F. Tian, T.L. Qu, L.B. Luo, J.J. Yang, S.M. Guo, H.Y. Zhang, Y.G. Zhao, J.Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063507 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    R.V. Chopdekar, J. Heidler, C. Piamonteze, Y. Takamura, A. Scholl, S. Rusponi, H. Brune, L.J. Heyderman, F. Nolting, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 241 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    M. Buzzi, C.A.F. Vaz, J. Raabe, F. Nolting, Electric field stimulation set-up for photoemission electron microscopes. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 083702 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    M. Buzzi, R.V. Chopdekar, J.L. Hockel, A. Bur, T. Wu, N. Pilet, P. Warnicke, G.P. Carman, L.J. Heyderman, F. Nolting, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027204 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    S. Finizio, M. Foerster, M. Buzzi, B. Krüger, M. Jourdan, C.A.F. Vaz, J. Hockel, T. Miyawaki, A. Tkach, S. Valencia, F. Kronast, G.P. Carman, F. Nolting, M. Kläui, Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 021001 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSIVilligenSwitzerland
  2. 2.National Institute of Materials PhysicsMagureleRomania

Personalised recommendations