Energy-Yield-Based Optimization of a H-Darrieus Wind Turbine in Skewed Flow

  • A. BianchiniEmail author
  • F. Balduzzi
  • G. Ferrara
  • L. Ferrari
Conference paper
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Recent experiments and theoretical models showed that the aerodynamic performance of H-Darrieus wind turbines can even be enhanced in case of moderate skew angles, which are typical of installations in the urban environment. In this study, a design procedure oriented to the maximization of the annual energy yield in skewed flow, instead of the maximum rated power, was carried out. 14400 test cases of H-Darrieus rotors were simulated with a numerical code based on a Blade Element Momentum approach, including an in-house model to account for the skewed flow, and compared on the basis of their energy-yield capabilities for different annual wind distributions. The analysis highlighted that the optimal design configurations in skewed flow significantly differ from the corresponding ones in case of aligned flow and also that a design oriented to the maximum energy-yield in skewed flow can make H-Darrieus rotors competitive for urban installations in comparison to HAWTs.


Darrieus Wind turbine Skewed flow Energy yield BEM 

List of Symbols and Abbreviations


Area (m2)


Induction Factor


Aspect Ratio


Blade Element Momentum


Blade Chord (m)


Power Coefficient


Turbine Diameter (m)


Force (N)




Turbine Height (m)


Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine


Mass (kg)


Blades/Struts Number


Power (W)


Turbine Outer Radius (m)


Reynolds Number


Annual Time of each Wind Class (h)


Parasitic Torque of the Struts (Nm)


Airfoil Thickness (m)


Tip-Speed Ratio


Wind Class (m/s)


Wind Speed (m/s)


Wind Speed at Infinite (m/s)


Average Wind Speed (m/s)


Vertical Axis Wind Turbine


Relative Wind Speed (m/s)



Per Unit Area

Vectorial Quantity











Resistant Component



Greek Letters


Turbine Shape Factor


Skew Angle (deg)


Energy-conversion Efficiency


Azimuthal Angle (deg)


Kinematic Viscosity (m2/s)


Chord/Diameter Ratio


Density (kg/m3)




Structural Stress (N/m2)


Rotational Speed (rad/s)



Thanks are due to Prof. Ennio Antonio Carnevale of the University of Florence for supporting this research activity.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Bianchini
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Balduzzi
    • 1
  • G. Ferrara
    • 1
  • L. Ferrari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering (DIEF)Università degli Studi di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering (DESTEC)University of PisaPisaItaly

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