Advertisement

Pediatric Pain

  • Lori-Ann Oliver
  • Jodi-Ann Oliver
  • Hassan Rayaz
  • J. Lance Lichtor
Chapter

Abstract

A stronger case is being made for the management of acute and chronic pain in children. The old dogma that children and infants do not perceive pain in the same way as adults and therefore do not require the same level of care and intervention is false. Children and infants do in fact experience pain, whether following surgery or as part of a chronic pain syndrome. If this pain is not treated appropriately, it can lead to long-term or permanent repercussions for both the patients and their families. Pain management in children is best accomplished using a multimodal approach: opioids (patient- and nurse-controlled continuous infusions), adjuncts such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen, anti-neuroleptics such as gabapentin, and regional anesthesia techniques such as placement of peripheral nerve blocks and neuraxial blockade such as caudals, epidurals, and spinals. In the case of postoperative pain, the placement of peripheral and central blocks has the added benefit of not only decreasing the overall use of opioids throughout the surgical procedure as well as during the immediate postoperative period but, if placed appropriately such as prior to surgical incision, can be used as a preemptive measure to prevent the development of pain.

Keywords

Acute pain Chronic pain Pain assessment of pain in children compared to adults Postoperative pain Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Phantom limb pain Opioids and pain management Non-opioid adjuncts and pain management of acute and chronic pain Peripheral nerve blocks Neuraxial blocks in children Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome Sickle cell crisis and development of chronic pain Neuropathic pain 

References

  1. 1.
    Verghese ST, Hannallah RS. Acute pain management in children. J Pain Res. 2010;3:105–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taddio A, Katz J. The effects of early pain experience in neonates on pain responses in infancy and childhood. Paediatr Drugs. 2005;7(4):245–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taddio A, Katz J, Ilersich AL, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet. 1997;349(9052):599–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DiLorenzo M, Pillai Riddell R, Holsti L. Beyond acute pain: understanding chronic pain in infancy. Children (Basel). 2016;3(4):E26.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breivik H. Opioids in cancer and chronic non-cancer pain therapy-indications and controversies. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(9):1059–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ansermino M, Basu R, Vandebeek C, Montgomery C. Nonopioid additives to local anaesthetics for caudal blockade in children: a systematic review. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003;13(7):561–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Classification of chronic pain. Descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. Prepared by the International Association for the Study of Pain, Subcommittee on Taxonomy. Pain Suppl 1986;3:S1–226.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crellin D, Sullivan TP, Babl FE, O'Sullivan R, Hutchinson A. Analysis of the validation of existing behavioral pain and distress scales for use in the procedural setting. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17(8):720–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Babl FE, Crellin D, Cheng J, Sullivan TP, O'Sullivan R, Hutchinson A. The use of the faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability scale to assess procedural pain and distress in young children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(12):1281–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    von Baeyer CL, Spagrud LJ. Systematic review of observational (behavioral) measures of pain for children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years. Pain. 2007;127(1–2):140–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gomez RJ, Barrowman N, Elia S, Manias E, Royle J, Harrison D. Establishing intra- and inter-rater agreement of the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale for evaluating pain in toddlers during immunization. Pain Res Manag. 2013;18(6):e124–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huguet A, Stinson JN, McGrath PJ. Measurement of self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents. J Psychosom Res. 2010;68(4):329–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Trujillo KA, Akil H. Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Science. 1991;251:85–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ripamonti C, Groff L, Brunelli C, Polastri D, Stavrakis A, De Conno F. Switching from morphine to oral methadone in treating cancer pain: what is the equianalgesic dose ratio? J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(10):3216–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berde CB, Sethna NF. Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:11094–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morton NS, Errera A. APA national audit of pediatric opioid infusions. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:119–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kart T, Christrup LL, Rasmussen M. Recommended use of morphine in neonates, infants and children based on a literature review: Part 1—Pharmacokinetics. Paediatr Anaesthesiol. 1997;7:5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pasternak GW, Standifer KM. Mapping of opioid receptors using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides: correlating their molecular biology and pharmacology. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1995;16:344–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nagasaka H, Awad H, Yaksh TL. Peripheral and spinal actions of opioids in the blockade of the autonomic response evoked by compression of the inflamed knee joint. Anesthesiology. 1996;85:808–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sabbe MB, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of spinal opioids. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1990;5:191–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ciszkowski C, Madadi P, Philips MS, Lauwers AE, Koren G. Codeine, ultrarapid-metabolism genotype, and postoperative death. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:827–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Koren G, Cairns J, Chitayat D, Gaedigk A, Leeder SJ. Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet. 2006;368:704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M. Opioid agonists and antagonists. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berde CB, Beyer JE, Bournaki MC, Levin CR, Sethna NF. Comparison of morphine and methadone for prevention of postoperative pain in 3- to 7-year-old children. J Pediatr. 1991;119:136–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gourlay GK, Willis RJ, Wilson PR. Postoperative pain control with methadone: influence of supplementary methadone doses and blood concentration-response relationships. Anesthesiology. 1984;61:19–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gourlay GK, Willis RJ, Lamberty J. A doluble-blind comparison of the efficacy of methadone and morphine in postoperative pain control. Anesthesiology. 1986;64:322–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scott CS, Riggs KW, Ling EW, Fitzgerald CE, et al. Morphine pharmacokinetics and pain assessment in premature newborns. J Pediatr. 1999;135:423–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lynn AM, Slattery JT. Morphine pharmacokinetics in early infancy. Anesthesiology. 1987;66:136–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Purcell-Jones G, Dormon F, Sumner E. The use of opioids in neonates. A retrospective study of 933 cases. Anaesthesia. 1987;42:1316–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Esmail Z, Montgomery C, Courtrn C, Hamilton D, Kestle J. Efficacy and complications of morphine infusions in postoperative paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesthesiol. 1999;9:321–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Katz R, Kelly HW. Pharmacokinetics of continuous infusions of fentanyl in critically ill children. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:995–1000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Santeiro ML, Christie J, Stromquist C, Torres BA, Markowsky SJ. Pharmacokinetics of continuous infusion fentanyl in newborns. J Perinatol. 1997;17:135–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vaughn PR, Townsend SF, Thilo EH, McKenzie S, Moreland S, Denver KK. Comparison of continuous infusion of fentanyl to bolus dosing in neonates after surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;31:1616–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Collins JJ, Geake J, Grier HE, Houck CS, Thaler HT, Weinstein HJ, Twum-Danso NY, Berde CB. Patient-controlled analgesia for mucositis pain in children: a three-period crossover study comparing morphine and hydromorphone. J Pediatr. 1996;129:722–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kussman BD, Sethna NF. Pethidine-associated seizure in a healthy adolescent receiving pethidine for postoperative pain control. Paediatr Anaesthesiol. 1998;8:349–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kranke P, Eberhart LH, Roewer N, Tramèr MR. Pharmacological treatment of postoperative shivering: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:453–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Witte J, Sessler DI. Perioperative shivering: physiology and pharmacology. Anesthesiology. 2002;96:467–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rodgers BM, Webb CJ, Stergios D, Newman BM. Patient controlled analgesia in pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 1988;23:259–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaukroger PB, Tomkins DP, van der Walt JH. Patient-controlled analgesia in children. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1989;17:264–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Viscusi ER, Schechter LN. Patient-controlled analgesia: finding a balance between cost and comfort. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63:3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grissinger M. Safety and patient-controlled analgesia: Part 2: How to prevent errors. P T. 2008;33(1):8–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Monitto CL, Greenberg RS, Kost-Byerly S, Wetzel R, Billett C, Lebet RM, Yaster MCL. The safety and efficacy of parent-/nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than six years of age. Anesth Analg. 2000;91:573–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lehr VT, BeVier P. Patient-controlled analgesia for the pediatric patient. Orthop Nurs. 2003;22:298–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Voepel-Lewis T, Marinkovic A, Kostrzewa A, Tait AR, Malviya S. The prevalence and risk factors for adverse events in children receiving patient-controlled analgesia by proxy or patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:70–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gibb IA, Anderson BJ. Paracetamol [acetaminophen] pharmacodynamics: interpreting the plasma concentration. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:241–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Marel CD, van Lingen RA, Pluim MA, Scoones G, van Dijk M, Vaandrager JM, Tibboel D. Analgesic efficacy of rectal versus oral acetaminophen in children after major craniofacial surgery. Clini Pharmacol Ther. 2001;70:82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Heubi JE, Barbacci MB, Zimmerman HJ. Therapeutic misadventures with acetaminophen: hepatoxicity after multiple doses in children. J Pediatr. 1998;132:22–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Savino F, Lupica MM, Tarasco V, Locatelli E, Garazzino S, Tovo PA. Fulminant hepatitis after 10 days of acetaminophen treatment at recommended dosage in an infant. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e494–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Birmingham PK, Tobin MJ, Fisher DM, et al. Initial and subsequent dosing of rectal acetaminophen in children: a 24-hour pharmacokinetic study of new dose recommendations. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:385–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Birmingham PK, Tobin MJ, Henthorn TK, et al. 24 hour pharmacokinetics of rectal acetaminophen in children: an old drug with new recommendations. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:244–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kumpulainen E, Kokki H, Halonen T, et al. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) penetrates readily into the cerebrospinal fluid of children after intravenous administration. Pediatrics. 2007;119:766–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Hyperalgesia mediated by spinal glutamate or substance P receptor blocked by spinal cyclooxygenase inhibition. Science. 1992;257:1276–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cardwell M, Siviter G, Smith A. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and perioperative bleeding paediatric tonsillectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Clark E, Plint AC, Correll R, Gaboury I, Passi B. A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma. Pediatrics. 2007;119:460–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moores MA, Wandless JG, Fell D. Paediatric postoperative analgesia. A comparison of rectal diclofenac with caudal bupivacaine after inguinal herniotomy. Anaesthesia. 1990;45:156–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ryhänen P, Adamski J, Puhakka K, Leppäluoto J, Vuolteenaho O, Ryhänen J. Postoperative pain relief in children. A comparison between caudal bupivacaine and intramuscular diclofenac sodium. Anaesthesia. 1994;49:57–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baer GA, Rorarius MG, Kolehmainen S, Selin S. The effect of paracetamol or diclofenac administered before operation on postoperative pain and behaviour after adenoidectomy in small children. Anaesthesia. 1992;47:1078–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tawalbeh MI, Nawasreh OO, Husban AM. Comparative study of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol for treatment of pain after adenotonsillectomy in children. Saudi Med J. 2001;22:121–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lieh-Lai MW, Kauffman RE, Uy HG, Danjin M, Simpson PM. A randomized comparison of ketorolac tromethamine and morphine for postoperative analgesia in critically ill children. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:2786–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Papacci P, De Francisci G, Iacobucci T, Giannantonio C, De Carolis MP, Zecca E, Romagnoli C. Use of intravenous ketorolac in the neonate and premature babies. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14:487–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cohen MN, Christians U, Henthorn T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of single dose intravenous ketorolac in infants aged 2011 months. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:655–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lynn AM, Bradford H, Kantor ED, et al. Postoperative ketorolac tromethamine use in infants aged 6–18 months: the effect on morphine usage, safety assessment, and stereo-specific pharmacokinetics. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1040–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Moffett BS, Wann TI, Carberry KE, Mott AR. Safety of ketorolac in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:424–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Krishna S, Hughes LF, Lin SY. Postoperative hemorrhage with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use after tonsillectomy: a meta-analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:1086–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Møiniche S, Rømsing J, Dahl JB, Tramèr MR. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of operative site bleeding after tonsillectomy: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:68–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Munro HM, Walton SR, Malviya S, Merkel S, Voepel-Lewis T, Loder RT, Farley FA. Low-dose ketorolac improves analgesia and reduces morphine requirements following posterior spinal fusion in adolescents. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49:461–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vitale MG, Choe JC, Hwang MW, Bauer RM, Hyman JE, Lee FY, Roye DP Jr. Use of ketorolac tromethamine in children undergoing scoliosis surgery. An analysis of complications. Spine J. 2003;2003:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sucato DJ, Lovejoy JF, Agrawal S, Elerson E, Nelson T, McClung A. Postoperative ketorolac does not predispose to pseudoarthrosis following posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2008;33:1119–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Finkel JC, Rose JB, Schmitz ML, et al. An evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of oral tramadol hydrochloride tablets for the treatment of postsurgical pain in children. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:1469–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Khosravi MB, Khezri S, Azemati S. Tramadol for pain relief in children undergoing herniotomy: a comparison with ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric blocks. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:54–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Finkel JC, Pestieau SR, Quezado ZM. Ketamine as an adjuvant for treatment of cancer pain in children and adolescents. J Pain. 2007;8:515–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Conway M, White N, Jean CS, Zempsky WT, Steven K. Use of continuous intravenous ketamine for end-stage cancer pain in children. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2009;26:100–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aydin ON, Ugur B, Ozgun S, Eyigör H, Copcu O. Pain prevention with intraoperative ketamine in outpatient children undergoing tonsillectomy or tonsillectomy and adenotomy. J Clin Anesth. 2007;2007:115–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bazin V, Bollot J, Asehnoune K, Roquilly A, Guillaud C, De Windt A, Nguyen JM, Lejus C. Effects of perioperative intravenous low dose of ketamine on postoperative analgesia in children. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:47–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wong C, editor. Epidural and spinal analgesia/anesthesia for labor and vaginal delivery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kunnumpurath S, Ramessur S, Fendius A, Vadivelu N. Neuraxial blockade: epidural anesthesia. In: Kaye A, Urman R, Vadivelu N, editors. Essentials of regional anesthesia. 1st ed. New York: Springer; 2012. p. 293–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dadure SB, Nicolas F, Bromilow L, Raux O, Rochette A, Capdevila X. Continuous epidural block versus continuous popliteal nerve block for postoperative pain relief after major podiatric surgery in children: a prospective, comparative randomized study. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:744–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Benzon H. Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient. In: Hadzic A, et al., editors. Hadzic’s peripheral nerve blocks and anatomy for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    De Andrés J, Sala-Blanch X. Ultrasound in the practice of brachial plexus anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:77–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tsui B, Suresh S. Ultrasound imaging for regional anesthesia in infants, children, and adolescents: a review of current literature and its application in the practice of extremity and trunk blocks. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:473–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tsui BC, Suresh S. Ultrasound imaging for regional anesthesia in infants, children, and adolescents: a review of current literature and its application in the practice of neuraxial blocks. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:719–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Neal JM, Brull R, Chan VW, Grant SA, et al. The ASRA evidence -based medicine assessment of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and pain medicine: executive summary. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Antonakakis J. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia for peripheral nerve blocks: an evidence-based outcome review. Anesthsiol Clin. 2011;29:179–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berde C. Convulsions associated with pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1992;75:164–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Luz G, Innerhofer P, Bachmann B, Frischhut B, Menardi G, Benzer A. Bupivacaine plasma concentrations during continuous epidural anesthesia in infants and children. Anesth Analg. 1996;82:231–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Luz G, Wieser C, Innerhofer P, Frischhut B, Ulmer H, Benzer A. Free and total bupivacaine plasma concentrations after continuous epidural anaesthesia in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth. 1998;8:473–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bardsley H, Gristwood R, Baker H, Watson N, Nimmo W. A comparison of the cardiovascular effects of levobupivacaine and racc-bupivacaine following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998;46:245–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Huang YF, Pryor ME, Mather LE, Veering BT. Cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of intravenous levobupivacaine and bupivacaine in sheep. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:797–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zsigmond EK, Downs JR. Plasma cholinesterase activity in newborns and infants. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1971;18:278–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Selden R, Sasahara AA. Central nervous system toxicity induced by lidocaine. Report of a case in a patient with liver disease. JAMA. 1967;202:908–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reidenberg MM, James M, Dring LG. The rate of procaine hydrolysis in serum of normal subjects and diseased patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1972;13:278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    De Jong RH, Heavner JE. Local anesthetic seizure prevention: diazepam versus pentobarbital. Anesthesiology. 1972;36:449–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA, Cohn K, Steinbrunn W, Cudihee R, Rowland M. Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease, and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med. 1973;78:499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Englesson S. The influence of acid-base changes on central nervous system toxicity of local anaesthetic agents. I. An experimental study in cats. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1974;18:79–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Englesson S, Grevsten S. The influence of acid-base changes on central nervous system toxicity of local anaesthetic agents. II. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1974;18:88–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Roberts JK, Westphal S, Sparks MA. Iatrogenic baclofen neurotoxicity in ESRD: recognition and management. Semin Dial. 2015;28:525–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Polaner DM, Drescher J. Pediatric regional anesthesia: what is the current safety record? Pediatr Anesth. 2011;21:737–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Suresh S, Sarwark JP, Bhalla T, Janicki J. Performing US-guided nerve blocks in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) for upper extremity fractures: is this feasible in children? Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19:1238–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vandepitte C, Lopez AM, Jalil H. Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. In: Hadzic A, et al., editors. Hadzic’s peripheral nerve blocks and anatomy for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wilson JL, Brown DL, Wong GY, Ehman RL, Cahill DR. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: parasagittal anatomy important to the coracoid technique. Anesth Analg. 1998;87:870–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bendtsen TF, Lopez AM, Vandepitte C. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. In: Hadzic A, et al., editors. Hadzic’s peripheral nerve blocks and anatomy for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brown DL, Spites BD, Spence BC. Supraclavicular block. In: Brown DL, editor. Atlas of regional anesthesia. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sala-Blanch X, Lázaro JR, Correa J, Gómez-Fernandez M. Phrenic nerve block caused by interscalene brachial plexus block: effects of digital pressure and a low volume of local anesthetic. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1999;24:231–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ediale KR, Myung CR, Neuman GG. Prolonged hemidiaphragmatic paralysis following interscalene brachial plexus block. J Clin Anesth. 2004;16:573–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tetzlaff JE, Yoon HJ, Dilger J, Brems J. Subdural anesthesia as a complication of an interscalene brachial plexus block. Case report. Reg Anesth. 1994;19:357–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Visoiu M. Paediatric regional anaesthesia: a current perspective. Curr Opin. 2015;28:577–82.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology. 2012;116(2):248–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dingeman RS, Barus LM, Chung HK, Clendenin DJ, Lee CS, Tracy S, et al. Ultrasonography-guided bilateral rectus sheath block vs local anesthetic infiltration after pediatric umbilical hernia repair: a prospective randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg. 2013;148(8):707–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Verghese ST, Hannallah RS. Postoperative pain management in children. Anesthesiol Clin North Am. 2005;23(1):163–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dalens B, Hasnaoui A. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgery: success rate and adverse effects in 750 consecutive patients. Anesth Analg. 1989;68(2):83–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wulf H, Peters C, Behnke H. The pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine 0.2% in children. A study of infants aged less than 1 year and toddlers aged 1–5 years undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Anaesthesia. 2000;55(8):757–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lee JJ, Rubin AP. Comparison of a bupivacaine-clonidine mixture with plain bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children. Br J Anaesth. 1994;72(3):258–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Abdellatif AA. Ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks versus caudal block for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing unilateral groin surgery. Saudi J Anaesth. 2012;6(4):367–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kendigelen P, Tutuncu AC, Erbabacan E, Ekici B, Koksal G, Altindas F, et al. Ultrasound-assisted transversus abdominis plane block vs wound infiltration in pediatric patient with inguinal hernia: randomized controlled trial. J Clin Anesth. 2016;30:9–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bhalla T, Sawardekar A, Dewhirst E, Jagannathan N, Tobias JD. Ultrasound-guided trunk and core blocks in infants and children. J Anesth. 2013;27(1):109–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chelly JE. Paravertebral blocks. Anesthesiol Clin. 2012;30(1):75–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Greengrass RA, Duclas R Jr. Paravertebral blocks. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2012;50(1):56–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Elsayed H. Insertion of paravertebral block catheters intraoperatively to reduce incidence of block failure. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;14(5):648–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Helms O, Mariano J, Hentz JG, Santelmo N, Falcoz PE, Massard G, et al. Intra-operative paravertebral block for postoperative analgesia in thoracotomy patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40(4):902–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chen LM, Weinberg VK, Chen C, Powell CB, Chen LL, Chan JK, et al. Perioperative outcomes comparing patient controlled epidural versus intravenous analgesia in gynecologic oncology surgery. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;115(3):357–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Diwan SA, Malhotra V, Metha ND, Piracha MM. Chapter 48: Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. In: Yao F, Malhotra V, Fong J, Skubas N, editors. Yao and Artusio’s Anesthesiology. 8th ed. Wolters: Kluwer; 2016. p. 912–23.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Berde C, Greco C. Chapter 33: Pain management in children. In: Gregory GA, Andropoulos DB, editors. Gregory’s pediatric anesthesia. 5th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011. p. 133–7.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Berde C, Greco C. Chapter 33: Pain management in children. In: Gregory GA, Andropoulos DB, editors. Gregory’s pediatric anesthesia. 5th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011. p. 138.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sherry DD, Wallace CA, Kelley C, Kidder M, Sapp L. Short- and long-term outcomes of children with complex regional pain syndrome type I treated with exercise therapy. Clin J Pain. 1999;15(3):218–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Imani F, Hemati K, Rahimzadeh P, Kazemi MR, Hejazian K. Effectiveness of stellate ganglion block under fuoroscopy or ultrasound guidance in upper extremity CRPS. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(1):UC09–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hsu ES. Practical management of complex regional pain syndrome. Am J Ther. 2009;16(2):147–54. (the use of popliteal catheter for CRPS)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Montgomery SH, Shamji CM, Yi GS, Yarnold CH, Head SJ, Bell SC, et al. Effect of nerve stimulation use on the success rate of ultrasound-guided subsartorial saphenous nerve block: a randomized controlled trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017;42(1):25–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kayode W, Guarino AM, Raja SN. Complex regional pain syndrome. In: Benzon HT, editor. Essentials of pain medicine. 3rd ed. London: Saunders; 2011. p. 351–7.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Dadure C, Motais F, Ricard C, Raux O, Troncin R, Capdevila X. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home for treatment of recurrent complex regional pain syndrome I in children. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(2):387–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rho RH, Brewer RP, Lamer TJ, Wilson PR. Complex regional pain syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(2):174–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Pedemonte Stall V, Medici Olaso C, Kanopa Almada V, Gonzalez Rabelino G. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Nuerologia. 2015;30:347–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2013.12.016. Epub 2014 Jun 18
  132. 132.
    Saltik S, Sozen HG, Basgul S, Karatoprak EY, Icagasioglu A. Pregabalin treatment of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2016;54:88–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shanthanna H, Aboutouk D, Poon E, Cheng J, Finley C, Paul J, et al. A retrospective study of open thoracotomies versus thoracoscopic surgeries for persistent postthoracotomy pain. J Clin Anesth. 2016;35:215–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Maguire MF, Ravenscroft A, Beggs D, Duffy JP. A questionnaire study investigating the prevalence of the neuropathic component of chronic pain after thoracic surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;29(5):800–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    SSM R, Gadsden JM. Chapter 76: Preemptive analgesia. Regional anesthesia & the prevention if chronic postoperative pain. In: Hadic A, editor. Textbook of regional anesthesia and acute pain management. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007. p. 1097–9.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hu JS, Lui PW, Wang H, Chan KH, Luk HN, Tsou MY, et al. Thoracic epidural analgesia with morphine does not prevent postthoracotomy pain syndrome: a survey of 159 patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 2000;38(4):195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Senturk M, Ozcan PE, Talu GK, Kiyan E, Camci E, Ozyalcin S, et al. The effects of three different analgesia techniques on long-term postthoracotomy pain. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(1):11–5. table of contentsCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Raveglia F, Rizzi A, Leporati A, Di Mauro P, Cioffi U, Baisi A. Analgesia in patients undergoing thoracotomy: epidural versus paravertebral technique. A randomized, double-blind, prospective study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;147(1):469–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wildgaard K, Ravn J, Kehlet H. Chronic post-thoracotomy pain: a critical review of pathogenic mechanism and strategies for prevention. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;36:170–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Platt OS, Brambilla DJ, Rosse WF, Milner PF, Castro O, Steinberg MH, Klug PP. Mortality in sickle cell disease. Life expectancy and risk factors for early death. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1639–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Steinberg M. Management of sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1021–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stuart MJ, Nagel RL. Sickle-cell disease. Lancet. 2004;364:1343–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Firth PG, Head CA. Sickle cell disease and anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:766–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, Williams R, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. National Acute Chest Syndrome Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1855–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Yawn BP, Buchanan GR, Afenyi-Annan AN, Ballas SK, et al. Management of sickle cell disease: summary of the 2014 evidence-based report by expert panel members. JAMA. 2014;312:1033–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Charache S, Terrin ML, Moore RD, Dover GJ, Barton FB, Eckert SV, RP MM, Bonds DR. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the multicenter study of hydroxyurea in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med. 1995;323:1317–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gladwin MT, Schechter AN. Nitric oxide therapy in sickle cell disease. Semin Hematol. 2001;38:333–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Buchanan GR, DeBaun MR, Quinn CT, Steinberg MH. Sickle cell disease. Hematology American Society of Hematology Education Program 2004;2004:35–47.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Okpala I, Tawil A. Management of pain in sickle-cell disease. J R Soc Med. 2002;86:456–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hostetler SG, Schwartz L, Shields BJ, Xiang H, Smith GA. Characteristics of pediatric traumatic amputations treated in hospital emergency departments: United States, 1990–2002. Pediatrics. 2005;116(5):e667–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Nagarajan R, Neglia JP, Clohisy DR, Robison LL. Limb salvage and amputation in survivors of pediatric lower-extremity bone tumors: what are the long-term implications? J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(22):4493–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Nathanson M. Phantom limbs as reported by S. Weir Mitchell. Neurology. 1988;38(3):504–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nikolajsen L, Jensen TS. Phantom limb pain. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:107–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Karl A, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, Cohen LG, Flor H. Reorganization of motor and somatosensory cortex in upper extremity amputees with phantom limb pain. J Neurosci. 2001;21(10):3609–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Borghi MD, White PF, et al. The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: the effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(5):1308–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori-Ann Oliver
    • 1
  • Jodi-Ann Oliver
    • 1
  • Hassan Rayaz
    • 1
  • J. Lance Lichtor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations