Chronic Otitis Media
Chronic otitis media is a complex diagnosis, encompassing several more specific diseases such as cholesteatoma, tympanic membrane perforation, chronic suppurative otitis media, tympanostomy tube otorrhea, and chronic otitis media with effusion. Given the range of conditions that are classified as chronic otitis media, it is important to define each of these diagnoses individually as they have differing etiologies. Although the included conditions have many differences, there are also several etiologic factors that unite them including Eustachian tube dysfunction and biofilms. Through understanding of the differences and similarities, one can more easily understand when and why different treatments must be employed. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, etiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of various types of chronic otitis media.
KeywordsCholesteatoma Tympanic membrane perforation Otorrhea Hearing loss Biofilms Eustachian tube dysfunction
- 2.Acuin J. Chronic suppurative otitis media: burden of illness and management options. Geneva: Child and Adolescent Health and Development Prevention of Blindness and Deafness. World Health Organization; 2004. http://www.who.int/pbd/publications/Chronicsuppurativeotitis_media.pdf.Google Scholar
- 24.Puig C, Domenech A, Garmendia J, Langereis D, Mayer P, Calatayud L, et al. Increased biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenza isolates from patients with invasive disease or otitis media versus strains recovered from cases of respiratory infections. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014;80(22):7088–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 28.Brackman DE, Shelton C, Arriaga MS. Otologic surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016. ISBN: 978-0-323-29977-0.Google Scholar
- 30.Guo M, Huang Y, Wang J. Report of myringoplasty with interlay method in 53 ears perforation of tympani. J Clin Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;13(4):147–9.Google Scholar