Epiglottitis, Acute Laryngitis, and Croup

Chapter

Abstract

Epiglottitis, acute laryngitis, and croup (acute laryngotracheobronchitis) are infections of the upper airway, affecting the epiglottis, larynx, and larynx and trachea, respectively. Epiglottitis is a bacterial infection, while viruses cause nearly all cases of acute laryngitis and croup. Acute laryngitis in adults is usually self-limited. Epiglottitis, which used to be prevalent in children under age 5, is now seen more often in adults than in children. This decline in childhood epiglottitis is due to the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, are now important causes of epiglottitis. Croup is a viral infection, usually due to parainfluenza virus, that primarily affects children ages 6 months to 3 years old. Epiglottitis and croup can cause life-threatening loss of the airway, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement can result in fatalities. This chapter reviews the clinical features and treatment of these three upper respiratory tract infections.

Keywords

Epiglottitis Supraglottitis Acute laryngitis Croup Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngotracheitis 

References

  1. 1.
    Hippocrates. Oeuvres completes d’Hippocrate avec le texte grec en regard collationne sur les manuscrits et toutes les editions. Translated by E. Littre Paris: Balliere et Fils, 1861.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wurtele P. Acute epiglottitis: historical highlights and perspectives for future research. J Otolaryngol. 1992;21(Suppl 2):1–15. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morens DM. Death of a president. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1845–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takala AK, Peltola H, Eskola J. Disappearance of epiglottitis during large-scale vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine among children in Finland. Laryngoscope. 1994;104:731–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garpenholt O, Hugosson S, Fredlund H, et al. Epiglottitis in Sweden before and after introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18:490–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gorelick MH, Baker MD. Epiglottitis in children, 1979 through 1992. Effects of Haemophilus influenza type b immunization. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(1):47–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger G, Landau T, Berger S, et al. The rising incidence of adult acute epiglottitis and epiglottic abscess. Am J Otolaryngol. 2003;24(6):374–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bizaki AJ, Numminen J, Vasama JP, Laranne J, Rautiainen M. Acute supraglottitis in adults in Finland: review and analysis of 308 cases. Laryngoscope. 2011 Oct;121(10):2107–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guldfred LA, Lyhne D, Becker BC. Acute epiglottitis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122(8):818–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wood N, Menzies R, McIntyre P. Epiglottitis in Sydney before and after the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Intern Med J. 2005;35(9):530–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chroboczek T, Cour M, Hernu R, et al. Long-term outcome of critically ill adult patients with acute epiglottitis. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0125736.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guardiani E, Bliss M, Harley E. Supraglottitis in the era following widespread immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B: evolving principles in diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope. 2010;120(11):2183–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Young LS, Price CS. Complicated adult epiglottitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28(6):441–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shah RK, Roberson DW, Jones DT. Epiglottitis in the Hemophilus influenzae type B vaccine era: changing trends. Laryngoscope. 2004;114(3):557–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lacroix J, Gauthier M, Lapointe N, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa supraglottitis in a six-month-old child with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988;7(10):739–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walsh TJ, Gray WC. Candida epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients. Chest. 1987;91:482.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mathur KK, Mortelliti AJ. Candida epiglottitis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83(1):13.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Royal College of General Practitioners. Communicable and respiratory disease report for England and Wales. RCGP, 2001–2010.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wood JM, Athanasiadis T, Allen J. Laryngitis. BMJ. 2014;349:g5827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Somenek M, Le M, Walner DL. Membranous laryngitis in a child. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74(6):704–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Souza AM, Duprat Ade C, Costa RC, et al. Use of inhaled versus oral steroids for acute dysphonia. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;79:196–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reveiz L, Cardona AF. Antibiotics for acute laryngitis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD004783.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cherry JD. Clinical practice: croup. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:384–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Björnson CL, Johnson DW. Croup. Lancet. 2008;371:329–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hall CB, Hall WJ. Chapter 352: croup (acute laryngotracheobronchitis). In: McInerny TK, Adam HM, Campbell DE, DeWitt TG, Foy JM, Kamat DM, editors. American academy of pediatrics textbook of pediatric care. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2017.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Segal AO, Crighton EJ, Rym M. Croup hospitalizations in Ontario: a 14-year time-series analysis. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1):51–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marx A, Torok T, Holman R, et al. Pediatric hospitalizations for croup (laryngotracheobronchitis): biennial increases associated with human parainfluenza virus 1 epidemics. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:1423–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rihkanen H, Rönkkö E, Nieminen T, et al. Respiratory viruses in laryngeal croup of young children. J Pediatr. 2008;152(5):661–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bjornson CL, Klassen TP, Williamson J, et al. A randomized trial of a single dose of oral dexamethasone for mild croup. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(13):1306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fernandes RM, Oleszczuk M, Woods CR, Rowe BH, Cates CJ, Hartling L. The Cochrane Library and safety of systemic corticosteroids for acute respiratory conditions in children: an overview of reviews. Evid Based Child Health. 2014;9(3):733–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine and Life SciencesUniversity of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations