Space agencies conduct radiation research because astronauts are exposed to chronic doses of radiation. But during long duration missions beyond LEO there is a real danger that crews may be exposed to acute doses that may lead to acute radiation syndrome (ARS). To be prepared for such missions, space agencies must be prepared to anticipate radiation exposures and be able to deal with the consequences [1–4]. One way to do this is to implement a radiation medical countermeasures (Figs. 9.1 and 9.2) program that would cover products used following a radiological emergency.
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