Advertisement

Interest Groups: Advocacy and Opposition

  • Joseph Berechman
Chapter

Abstract

Put most simply, economic changes and policy interventions generate political responses from those who see either threats to their interests or new opportunities to attain benefits (Acemoglu 2010). Because transportation mega-projects belong to that class of projects inciting intense changes, especially at the metropolitan and regional levels, it should not be surprising that they face various forms of opposition coming from multiple sources, ranging from vocal criticism to organized resistance. But mega-projects likewise benefit from vigorous support. In the USA, lobbying for earmarked projects was a common practice at the national (or federal) level until earmarking was prohibited by Congress in 2011. The proliferation of earmarked projects had persuaded advocacy groups to seek additional projects at the price of foregoing the benefits of more worthy projects. In addition, national advocacy organizations (or lobbyists) continue to try to persuade decision-makers by applying sometimes devious tactics but also their professional expertise.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D. 2010. Theory, General Equilibrium, and Political Economy in Development Economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (3): 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, D., and M. Jackson. 2011. History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Social Norms. Working Paper No. 17066. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w17066.
  3. Altshuler, A., and D. Luberoff. 2003. Mega-Projects. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berechman, J. 2009. Estimation of the Full Marginal Costs of Port Related Truck Traffic. Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning 32 (4): 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Derrick, P. 2001. Tunneling to the Future: The Story of the Great Subway Expansion That Saved New York. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dunn, J., Jr. 1998. Driving Forces: The Automobile, Its Enemies, and the Politics of Mobility. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  7. Flyvbjerg, B., and B. Van Wee, eds. 2008. Decision-Making on Mega-Projects: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Planning, and Innovation. Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  8. Frick, Karen Trapenberg. 2008. The Cost of the Technological Sublime: Daring Ingenuity and the New San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. In Decision-Making on Mega-Projects: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Planning, and Innovation, ed. Hugo Priemus, H. Bent Priemus, B. Flyvbjerg, and B. Van Wee. Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  9. Giuliano, G. 2007. The Changing Landscape of Transportation Decision Making. Transportation Research Record 2036: 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grossman, G., and E. Helpman. 1994. Protection for Sale. American Economic Review 84 (4): 833–850.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2001. Special Interest Politics. Cambridge and London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Knight, B. 2004. Parochial Interests and the Centralized Provision of Local Public Goods: Evidence from Congressional Voting on Transportation Projects. Journal of Public Economics 88: 845–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nobbe, P., and J. Berechman. 2013. The Politics of Large Infrastructure Investment Decision-Making: The Case of the Second Avenue Subway Case Study. New York: University Transportation Research Center, City College of New York.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2014. The Politics of Infrastructure Investment Decision-Making: Report of the Statistical Analysis of Selected Hypotheses. University Transportation Research Center Region 2, CCNY, CUNY, Final Report.Google Scholar
  15. Olson, M. 1971. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Plotch, P. 2015. Politics Across the Hudson: The Tappan Zee Megaproject. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Rodrik, D. 2014. When Ideas Trump Interests: Preferences, World Views, and Policy Innovations. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 28 (1): 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weible, C. 2006. An Advocacy Coalition Framework Approach to Stakeholder Analysis: Understanding the Political Context of California Marine Protected Areas. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 17: 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Weimer, D., and A. Vining. 2005. Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Berechman
    • 1
  1. 1.City College of New YorkUniversity of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations