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Historical Perspective on the Treatment of Choledocholithiasis: Lessons Learned and Techniques Prior to the Laparoscopic Era

  • George Berci
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter mentions briefly the history of gallbladder disease and the early stages of gallstone diagnostic techniques. The major focus of this chapter is the description and impact of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) as well as the value of decreasing the occurrence of bile duct injuries. There are significant improvements in early detection (during primary surgery) with avoidance of additional severe complications. The other major item reviewed is the use of improved intraoperative choledochoscopy in the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. The aim of this communication is that hopefully surgeons will consider using proper IOC during biliary surgery and reduce the high incidence of bile duct injuries (BDI) as well as perform removal of CBD stones (10% of cholecystectomies) in one surgery instead of two procedures.

Keywords

Cholangiography Gallstones Cholecystectomy Choledochoscope History Intraoperative cholangiography Intraoperative choledochoscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgment

I would like to express my thanks to Marc Arizmendez, Senior Media Specialist and Assistant, and Barbara Rosette and Susan Frederick for helping me to put this chapter together.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA

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