Partial Motivation, Multiple Motivation: The Role of Output Schemas in Morphology

  • Geert Booij
  • Jenny Audring
Part of the Studies in Morphology book series (SUMO, volume 4)


Output-oriented, constructional schemas should be used for stating regularities that are not productive. These schemas have a motivational function only. We show that words may be partially motivated even when they lack a base word. Moreover, they can be motivated by more than one schema. This applies to the huge set of Dutch verbs in -elen. Verbs in -eren appear to exhibit similar properties, as do parallel verbs in German and English, and Dutch words ending in -ig. Diachronic facts, in particular the construction of nouns ending in -er, support the claim that language users make generalizations in the form of output-oriented schemas.


Diminutive verb Motivation Output schema Phonaestheme Productivity Lexical network 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden University Center of LinguisticsUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

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