Advertisement

History of the Vascular System

  • Andreas Bikfalvi
Chapter

Abstract

The vision of the vascular system has undergone many changes during history (Table 2.1). Galen, a native of Pergamon (131–201 bc), was the personal physician of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Fig. 2.1). He described the circulatory system as a one-way system in which the veins and arteries are only distinguished by the quality of the blood they conveyed [3, 4]. He based his theory on those of predecessors including Erasistratus (304–250 bc), who postulated that veins conveyed blood and arteries only air. In this scheme, veins were connected to the right heart (atrium and right ventricle) and arteries, containing only air, to the left heart (atrium and left ventricle). Galen, in contrast, showed that arteries and veins both contained blood but of different qualities. For Galen, blood had its origin in the liver, passed from the right to the left heart to reach the major blood vessels to be transported to the various tissues, and finally was transformed into flesh. A fraction of the blood was also transported to the lungs, but only to nourish it, and another portion was transported from the right to the left heart through pores located in the septum. The air had the role of cooling blood and conveyed what was called “pneuma.” In the heart, it was transformed into the vital spirit. The arteries conveyed the pneuma and veins and, in addition to blood, several humors (yellow and black bile).

References

  1. 3.
    Galen MM (1968) Galen on the usefulness of the parts of the body. Peri chreias morion [romanized form] De usu partium. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  2. 4.
    Aird WC (2011) Discovery of the cardiovascular system: from Galen to William Harvey. J Thromb Haemostasis 9(Suppl 1):118–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04312.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 5.
    Keele KPC (1979) Leonardo da Vinci. Corpus of anatomical studies in the collection of her majesty the queen at Windsor Castle. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 6.
    Keele K (1972) Leonardo da Vinci’s views on arteriosclerosis. XXIII International Congress of the History of Medicine, London, pp 304–308Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Gharib M, Kremers D, Koochesfahani MM, Kemp M (2002) Leonardo’s vision of flow visualization. Exp Fluids 33:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 8.
    Meyerhof M (1935) Ibn al-Nefis (XII century) and his theory of the lesser circulation. Isis 23:100–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 9.
    Akmal M, Zulkifle M, Ansari AH (2010) IBN Nafis – a forgotten genius in the discovery of pulmonary blood circulation. Heart Views 11:26–30PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 16.
    Takrouri MS, Khalaf M (2003) Ibn al-Nafis contributions to science. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 17(2):163–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    Servetus M (1553) CHRISTIANISMI RESTITUTIO: Restoration of Christianity. An English translation of Christianismi Restitutio. Marian Hillar (Traduction), Christopher A. Hoffman (Traduction) Edwin Mellen Press Ltd, 2006Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Hofman C, Hillar M (2007/2008) The restauration of Christianity: an English translation of Christianismi restitutio. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewinston, NYGoogle Scholar
  11. 12.
    Columbo MR (1559) De re anatomica libri XV. Nicolò Bevilacqua, VeniceGoogle Scholar
  12. 13.
    Carlino A (1999) Books of the body: anatomical ritual and renaissance learning. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  13. 14.
    Mackall L (1924) A manuscript of the “Christianismi Restitutio” of Servetus, placing the discovery of the pulmonary circulation anterior to 1546. Proc R Soc Med 17(Sect Hist Med):35–38Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Chereau A (1879) Histoire du Livre, Michael Servet. Bull Acad de Med de Paris 8:30Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Cesalpino A (1571) Peripateticarum quaestiorturn lihri quirtqire. Guinta, VeniceGoogle Scholar
  16. 18.
    Fye WB (1996) Andrea Cesalpino. Clin Cardiol 19(12):969–970CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 19.
    Giugni F (1959) Further details on the priority in discovery of the circulation of the blood: Andrea Cesalpino or William Harvey? Il Policlinico Sezione pratica 66(Comunicazioni):1294–1297Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Aquapendente HF (1603) De Venarum Ostiolis (Trans: Franklin KJ). Published by Charles C Thomas (1933)Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Scultetus AH, Villavicencio JL, Rich NM (2001) Facts and fiction surrounding the discovery of the venous valves. J Vasc Surg 33(2):435–441. https://doi.org/10.1067/mva.2001.109772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 22.
    Wright T (2012) Circulation: William Harvey’s revolutionary idea. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 23.
    Harvey W (1628) Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguini in animalibus. Sumptibus Guiliemi Fitzeri, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  22. 24.
    D’Arcy Power FSA (1897) William Harvey. T. FISHER UNWIN, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. 25.
    Franklin KJ (1961) King Charles I and William Harvey. Proc Roy Soc Med 54:85–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 26.
    Schwann T (1847) Microscopical researches into the accordance in the structure and growth of animals and plants. Sydenham Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. 27.
    Malpighi M (1663) De pulmonibus observationibus anatomicæ. De pulmonum substantia & Motu diatribæ. Mathhiæ Godicchii, sumptibus Petri Hauboldi, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  26. 28.
    Bailly M (1771) Nouvelles Litteraires: Vie de Malpighi. In: Observation sur la Physique, sur l’Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Tome Premier, vol Hotel de Thou, Rue des Piotevins. Paris, pp 73–79Google Scholar
  27. 29.
    Van Leeuwenhoek A (1674) Microscopical observations concerning blood, milk, bones, the brain, spittle, and cuticula. Philos Trans 9:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 30.
    Ruysch F (1691) Observationum anatomico-chirurgicarum centuria. Amsterdam 2. Aufl. 1721: 3. Aufl. 1737Google Scholar
  29. 31.
    Earle JW (1835) On the nature of inflammation. Lond Med Gaz 16:6–12Google Scholar
  30. 32.
    Döllinger I (1821) Vom Kreislauf des Blutes. MünchenGoogle Scholar
  31. 33.
    Dollinger I (1805) Naturlehre des Menschlichen Organismus. Jos. Anton Goebhardt, Bamberg und WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  32. 34.
    Society R (1831) Dr Marshall Hall on the capillary circulation. Lond Med Gaz 8Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    Müller J (1833) Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen für Vorlesungen. J. Hölscher CoblenzGoogle Scholar
  34. 36.
    His W (1865) Die Häute und Höhlen des Körpers. Schwighauser, BaselGoogle Scholar
  35. 37.
    Koelliker A (1879) Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen und der höheren Tiere. Bremen University Press (July 2, 2014), Paperback Edition. Publisher Language: German. ISBN-10:3955626423, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  36. 38.
    Müller J, Baly W, Bell J (1843) Elements of physiology. Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  37. 39.
    Müller J (1844) Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen für Vorlesungen, vol Vierte verbesserte Auflage. Verlag von J. Hölscher, CoblenzGoogle Scholar
  38. 40.
    Dowler B (1849) Researches, critical and experimental, upon the capillary circulation. New Orleans Med Surg J V:447–477Google Scholar
  39. 41.
    Rouget CBM (1847) Note sur le développement de la tunique contractile des vaisseaux. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’ Académie des sciences 79:559–562Google Scholar
  40. 42.
    Zimmermann KW (1923) Der feinere Bau der Blutkapillaren. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 68:29–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 43.
    Mayer S (1902) Die Muskularisierung der capillaren Blutgefässe. Anat Anz 21:442–455Google Scholar
  42. 44.
    Hwa C, Aird WC (2007) The history of the capillary wall: doctors, discoveries, and debates. Am J Phys Heart Circ Phys 293(5):H2667–H2679. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00704.2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 45.
    Slack CB (1843) On abnormal nutrition and on the mode in which its different products are developed. In: Improvements and discoveries in the medical sciences: medical pathology and therapeutics and pratical medicine. Am J Med Sci:441–443Google Scholar
  44. 46.
    Addison W (1843) Experimental research with the microscope, in physiology and pathology. First Series: On the Blood, Inflammation &c. John Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. 47.
    Rather LJ (1972) Addison and the white corpuscles: an aspect of nineteenth-century biology. University of California Press, Berkley, CAGoogle Scholar
  46. 48.
    Cohnheim J (1867) Ueber Entzündung und Eiterung. Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin 40(1–2):1–79Google Scholar
  47. 49.
    Heidland A, Klassen A, Sebekova K, Bahner U (2009) Beginning of modern concept of inflammation: the work of Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen and Julius Friedrich Cohnheim. J Nephrol 22(Suppl 14):71–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 50.
    Clark ER, Clark EI (1935) Observations on changes in blood vascular endothelium in the living animal. Am J Anat 57:388–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 51.
    Otteley D (1839) John Hunter F.R.S. Haswell, Barrington, and Haswell, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  50. 52.
    Schechter DC, Bergan JJ (1986) Popliteal aneurysm: a celebration of the bicentennial of John Hunter’s operation. Ann Vasc Surg 1(1):118–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-5096(06)60712-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 53.
    Hunter J (1794) A treatise on the blood, inflammation, and gunshot wounds. Gryphon Editions Ltd., BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  52. 54.
    Bennett JH (1849) On cancerous and cancroid growths. Prov Med Surg J 13(12):324–326Google Scholar
  53. 55.
    Thiersch C (1869) Der Epithelialkrebs, namentlich der Haut mit Atlas: Eine Anatomisch-Klinische Untersuchung. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  54. 56.
    Tremain Hertig A (1935) Angiogenesis in the early human chorion and in the primary placenta of the macaque monkey, Contributions to embryology, vol 25. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. 57.
    Clark ER, Hitschler WJ, Kirby-Smith HT, Rex RO, Smith JH (1931) General observations on the ingrowth of new blood vessels into standardized chambers in the rabbit’s ear, and the subsequent changes in the newly grown vessels over a period of months. Anat Rec 50:129–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 58.
    Broca P (1849) Quelques propositions sur les tumeurs dites cancéreuses. Thèse pour le doctorat en Médecine, ParisGoogle Scholar
  57. 59.
    Broca P (1866) Traité des Tumeurs, vol 1. P Asselin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  58. 60.
    Goldmann E (1907) The growth of malignant disease in man and the lower animals, with special reference to the vascular system. Lancet 2:1236–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 61.
    Goldmann E (1908) The growth of malignant disease in man and the lower animals, with special reference to the vascular system. Proc Roy Soc Med 1(Surg Sect):1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 62.
    Greene HS (1941) Heterologous transplantation of mammalian tumors: I. The transfer of rabbit tumors to alien species. J Exp Med 73(4):461–474CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 63.
    Greene HS (1941) Heterologous transplantation of mammalian tumors: II. The transfer of human tumors to alien species. J Exp Med 73(4):475–486CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 64.
    Greene HS (1938) Heterologous transplantation of human and other mammalian tumors. Science 88(2285):357–358. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.88.2285.357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 65.
    Clark ER, Clark EI (1939) Microscopic observations on the growth of blood capillaries in the living mammals. Am J Anat 64:251–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 66.
    Algire GH, Chalkley HW (1945) Vascular reactions of normal and malignant tissue in vivo. J Natl Cancer Inst 6:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 67.
    Algire GH, Legallais FY (1948) Growth and vascularization of transplanted mouse melanomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci 4:159–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 68.
    Merwin RM, Algire GH (1956) The role of graft and host vessels in the vascularization of grafts of normal and neoplastic tissue. J Natl Cancer Inst 17(1):23–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 69.
    Ide AG, Baker NH, Warren SL (1939) Vascularization of the Brown-Pearce rabbit epithelioma transplant as seen in the transparent ear chambers. AJR 32:891–899Google Scholar
  68. 70.
    Greenblatt M, Shubi P (1968) Tumor angiogenesis: transfilter diffusion studies in the hamster by the transparent chamber technique. J Natl Cancer Inst 41(1):111–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 71.
    Ehrmann RL, Knoth M (1968) Choriocarcinoma. Transfilter stimulation of vasoproliferation in the hamster cheek pouch. Studied by light and electron microscopy. J Natl Cancer Inst 41(6):1329–1341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 72.
    Huang X, Molema G, King S, Watkins L, Edgington TS, Thorpe PE (1997) Tumor infarction in mice by antibody-directed targeting of tissue factor to tumor vasculature. Science 275(5299):547–550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 73.
    Aselli G (1627) De lactibus sive lacteis venis quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere, novo invento Gaspariis Asellii Cremonensis anatomici Ticinensis dissertatio, qua sententiae anatomicae multae, vel perperam receptae conuelluntur, vel parum perceptae illustrantur. apud Jo. Baptistam Bidellium, MediolaniGoogle Scholar
  72. 74.
    Pecquet J (1651) Experimenta nova anatomica, quibus incognitum chyli receptaculum, et ab eo per thoracem in ramosusque subclavis vasa lactea deteguntur. Apud Sebastianum Cramoisy et Gabrielem Cramoisy, ParisGoogle Scholar
  73. 75.
    Bartholin T (1653) Vasa Lymphaticia, Nuper Hafniae in Animantibus Inventa, et Hepatis Exsequiae Holst, CopenhagueGoogle Scholar
  74. 76.
    Rudbeck O (1653) Nova Exercitatio Anatomica Exhibens Ductus Hepaticos Aquosus et Vasa Glandularum Serosa. Lauringer, VasterasGoogle Scholar
  75. 77.
    Palmer JF (1837) The works of John Hunter with notes, vol IV. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. 78.
    Hewson W (1774) The lymphatic systems in the human subject, and in other animals. J Johnson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  77. 79.
    Ludwig C (1852–1856) Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, vol 2. Akademische Verlagshandlung CF Winter, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  78. 80.
    Fye WB (1986) Carl Ludwig and the Leipzig Physiological Institute: ‘a factory of new knowledge’. Circulation 74(5):920–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 81.
    von Recklinghausen F (1860) Eine methode, mikroskopische hohle und solide gebilde voneinander zu unterscheiden. Virchows Arch 19Google Scholar
  80. 83.
    Sabin FR (1902) On the origin of the lymphatic system from the veins and the development of the lymph hearts and thoracic duct in the pig. Am J Anat 1:367–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Sabin FR (1916) The method of growth of the lymphatic system. Science 44(1127):145–158. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.44.1127.145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 84.
    Clark ER (1909) Observations on living growing lymphatics in the tail of the frog larva. Anat Rec 6(261)Google Scholar
  83. 85.
    Clark ER, Clark EL (1933) Further observations on living lymphatic vessels in the transparent chamber in the rabbit’s ear-their relation to the tissue spaces. Am J Anat 52:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 86.
    Clark ER, Clark EL (1937) Observations on living mammalian lymphatic capillaries-their relation to the blood vessels. Am J Anat 60:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 87.
    Clark ER, Clark EL (1938) Observations of isolated lymphatic capillaries in the living mammal. Am J Anat 62(1):59–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Bikfalvi
    • 1
  1. 1.Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment LaboratoryUniversity of Bordeaux and National Institute of Health and Medical ResearchPessacFrance

Personalised recommendations