The Action/1: E3 Leadership and EU Ownership

  • Riccardo Alcaro
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)

Abstract

Intra-EU leadership on Iran always remained the product of a bargain. France, Germany and the United Kingdom (E3) had to strike a balance between two potentially conflicting needs: first, ensure that they remained in control of the EU Iran policy; second, promote a sense of EU-wide ownership of their action. Being in the Iran group gave the E3 obvious advantages: exclusive access to Iran (at least on nuclear matters), selective intra-EU information sharing, intra-EU alliances and the endorsement of the Security Council. The E3’s policy-making capacity, however, ultimately rested on the ability to promote an EU-wide sense of ownership of their initiative, which the E3 achieved by giving the group’s outsiders a degree of participation and representation through the involvement of the High Representative in the negotiation.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Alcaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Affari InternazionaliRomeItaly

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